December 2018

PMS Past Papers General Knowledge 2018 [Solved Paper]

(Held in January 2, 2018)

PPSC PMS Solved Past Paper 2018


1. Who was the inventor of Mouse?
(A) Douglas Englebart ✓
(B) Ada Lovelace
(C) Charles Babbage
(D) None of these

2. Name the person, who was exiled to Saint Helena after renowned battle of “Waterloo” in 1815:
(A) Adolf Hitler
(B) Napoleon Bonaparte ✓
(C) Rommel
(D) Hindenburg

3. CT scan stand for which of the following?
(A) Computed Tomography ✓
(B) Computer Topography
(C) Computed Topography
(D) Computer Tomography

4. Normandy is in?
(A) Italy
(B) England
(C) Austria
(D) France ✓

5. Sir Laurence Olivier was an?
(A) Engineer
(B) Actor ✓
(C) Comedian
(D) Politician

6. “Kofi Annan" a former Secretary General of U.N.O belonged to:
(A) Tanzania
(B) Kenya
(C) Ghana ✓
(D) Chad

7. Capital of the Ghana Is:
(A) Harare
(B) Accra ✓
(C) Kinshasa
(D) Banjul

8. The country of Ghana was formerly known by what name?
(A) Grain Coast
(B) Gold Coast ✓
(C) Ivory Coast
(D) Slave Coast

9. Congo Is the new name of:
(A) Madagascar
(B) Petrograd
(C) Zaire ✓
(D) Cape Canaveral

10. Black Pool is?
(A) Mountain
(B) Town ✓
(C) Airport
(D) Strait

11. Rakh Ghulaman Livestock farm is in?
(A) Okara
(B) Sahiwal
(C) Bhakkar ✓
(D) Mianwali

12. Which is the biggest fresh water lake in the world?
(A) Chilka Lake
(B) Caspian Lake
(C) Dal Lake
(D) Lake Superior ✓

13. Which is the deepest lake in the world?
(A) Titicaca
(B) Victoria
(C) Baikal ✓
(D) Superior

14. Ural Mountain is in?
(A) England
(B) Turkey
(C) Greece ✓
(D) Russia

15. Which country is the 2nd largest oil producer in the world?
(A) Russia
(C) Kuwait
(D) Saudi Arabia ✓

16. Bering strait separated Russia from?
(A) China
(B) USA ✓
(C) Japan
(D) Canada

17. Opium War was fought between China and?
(A) French
(B) Portuguese
(C) Indian
(D) British ✓

18. International dateline passes through?
(A) Bering Strait ✓
(B) Strait of Hormuz
(C) Dover Strait
(D) Davis Strait

19. Shortest day In Australia will be on?
(A) 25 December
(B) 22 December
(C) 15 June
(D) 21 June ✓

20. Mention the nickname of atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima in 1945?
(A) Little Boy ✓
(B) Daisy cutter
(C) Big Giant
(D) Sharp boy

21. TheTreaty of Sevres was signed in?
(A) 1921
(B) 1924
(C) 1920 ✓
D) 1919

22. Mustafa Kamal Pasha abolished the Khilafat in?
(A) 1921
(B) 1924 ✓
(C) 1920
(D) 1920

23. "We the people of United Nations" are the opening word of which of the historical documents?
(A) Human Right Charter
(B) US charter
(C) UN Charter ✓
(D) UNHCR Charter

24. Koh-e-Judl Is located In?
(A) India
(B) Turkey ✓
(C) Sri Lanka
(D) Iraq

25. Koh-e-Toorls in?
(A) Sinai ✓
(B) Syria
(C) Iraq
(D) Egypt

26. The name of Ceylon changed into Sri Lanka in?
(A) 1965
(B) 1972 ✓
(C) 1976
(D) 1974

27. One yard is equal to?
(A) 0.989 m
(B) 0.914 m ✓
(C) 1.125 m
(D) 1.150 m

28. 1 BTU is equal to how many joules?
(A) 1055✓
(B) 1075
(C) 1050
(D) 1155

29. One Gram of gold is equal to how many Milligrams of gold?
(A) 100 mg
(B) 500 mg
(C) 1000mg ✓
(D) lO.OOOmg

30. Adam's Peak is located in?
(A) Nepal
(B) Iran
(C) Sri Lanka ✓
(D) India

31. One inch is equal to?
(A) 2.5 cm
(B) 2 cm
(C) 2.54 cm ✓
(D) 3.00 cm

32. If 5X-15=60 then find the value of X?
(A) 15
(B) 17
(C) 13 ✓
(D) 11

33. Oldest Inhabited city In the world Is?
(A) Harappa
(B) Mchenjodarro
(C) Damascus ✓
(D) Taxila

34. The Cultural Center of Gandhara Civilization was situated at present day In:
(A) Afghanistan
(B) Pakistan ✓
(C) China
(D) Iraq

35. Oldest monarchy Is:
(A) Saudi Arab
(C) Japan ✓
(D) Kuwait

36. Father of Homeopathy is?
(A) Samuel Hahnemann ✓ 
(B) Hahnemann
(C) Sigmund
(D) Robert Dover

37. The book 'Wealth of Nations' was written by:
(A) John Marshal
(B) Karl Marx
(C) Max Muller
(D) None of these ✓

38.  Communist Manifesto was originally published in which language?
(A) Greek
(B) Russian
(C) French
(D) German ✓

39. The famous Incident of Boston Tea Party took place In?
(A) 1770
(B) 1785
(C) 1773 ✓
(D) 1776

40. Ahmad Khan Kharal the famous character of war of Independence belongs to?
(A) Gogera
(B) Satiana
(C) Jhamra ✓
(D) CheechaWatni

41. Faiz Ahmad Faiz was imprisoned for his alleged involvement in____conspiracy.
(A) Agartaia
(B) Lahore
(C) Attock
(D) Rawalpindi✓

42. "Pride and Prejudice” was written by:
(A) Jane Austen✓ 
(B) Thomas Hardy
(C) Agatha Christi
(D) George Orwell

43. Cholera is caused by?
(A) Cocci
(B) Virus
(C) Bacteria✓
(D) None of these

44. Which of the following disease is not caused by virus?
(A) Smallpox
(B) Polio
(C) Typhoid✓
(D) Mumps

45. Which among the following is Starch digesting enzyme?
(A) Protease
(B) Lipase
(C) Amylase✓
(D) None of these

46. Another name for Vitamin C Is:
(A) Ascorbic Acid✓ 
(B) Acetic Acid
(C) Citric Acid
(D) Lysozyme

47. Which is used as moderator In atomic reactor?
(A) Water
(B) Uranium
(C) Platinum✓
(D) Heavy Wuter

48. Guava is a rich source of:
(A) Vitamin C✓
(B) Vitamin D
(C) Vitamin A
(D) Calcium

49. “Conversations with Myself* was written by?
(A) Barak Obama
(B) Nelson Mandela✓ 
(C) Tony Blair
(D) None of those

50. Diameter of Jupiter is ___ times of earth's diameter?
(A) 13
(B) 11✓
(C) 9
(D) 10

* Conversation With Myself Is a collection of Nelson Mandela's speeches, letters, conversation and some of his publications. It a continuation of his former book Long Walk to Freedom.

51. Which is the hottest planet In the Solar System?
(A) Jupiter
(B) Mercury
(C) Uranus
(D) Venus ✓

52. Plato was ____ of Aristotle.
(A) Student
(B) Son
(C) Son-In-law
(D) Teacher ✓

53. Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in
(A) 1913 ✓
(B) 1914
(C) 1911
(D) 1916

54. The Jalllanwala massacre ___ took place In:
(A) April 1919 ✓
(B) December 1919
(C) April 1921
(D) April 1920

55. “Jalllanwala Bagh” Is located In:
(A) Lahore
(B) Delhi
(C) Lucknow
(D) Amritsar ✓

56. First Noble Prize In physics was awarded to?
(A) Priestly
(B) Roentgen  ✓
(C) Madame Curie
(D) Alexander Fleming

57. Which among the following is ancient wonder of world?
(A) Eiffel Tower
(B) Taj Mahal
(C) Lighthouse of Alexandria  ✓
(D) None of these

58. 200 candidates applied for exams, from which 180 candidates appeared In exam and 70 per cent passed, how many failed?
(A) 57
(B) 52
(C) 54  ✓
(D) 59

59. If X=28 and Y=51, then (X+Y)+(X-Y)=?
(A) 53
(B) 56  ✓
(C) 59
(D) 81

60. Who was the inventor of printing press?
(A) Johannes Gutenberg  ✓
(B) Louis Pasteur
(C) Oliver Cromwell
(D) St. Augustine

61. Yen is the currency of:
(A) France
(B) Denmark
(C) Italy ✓
(D) Sweden

62. if A completes a lob in 20 min and B In 30 mins, If they do the same job together how much time will they take?
(A) 15
(B) 20
(C) 25
(D) 12  ✓

63.  Which of the following districts of Balochistan contains huge deposits of Copper:
(A) Loralal
(B) Sibbl
(C) Khuzdar
(D) Chaghl  ✓

64. Kachura Lake Is situated In:
(A) Gilgit
(B) Kaghan Valley
(C) Baltlstan  ✓
(D) None of these

65. Patella Is present in?
(A) Skull
(B) Thorax
(C) Knee  ✓
(D) Elbow

66. Working boundary Is a boundary between
(A) Indian Held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir
(B) India and Pakistan
(C) Indian Held Kashmir and Pakistan  ✓
(D) Azad Kashmir and Pakistan

67. What does RAM In a computer stand for?
(A) Read and Memorize
(B) Random Access Memory  ✓
(C) Random Access Module
(D) Random Access Modem

68. URL Is an abbreviation of:
(A) Uniform Room Locator
(B) Universal Resource Locator
(C) Universal Room Locator
(D) Uniform Resource Locator  ✓

69. Wife of Bill Gates is the CEO of Gates Foundation, what is name of her wife?
(A) Ivana
(B) Melinda  ✓
(C) Milana
(D) None of these

70. The length of Siachen Glacier is ___ mile.
(A) 56
(B) 47
(C) 49  ✓
(D) None of these

71. Persecution of Rohinglya Muslims Is in which state of?
(A) Kayiin
(B) Rakhine  ✓
(C) Kachln
(D) None of these

72. Khad' Is the Intelligence agency of:
(A) Iraq
(B) Afghanistan  ✓
(C)  Egypt
(D) Russia

73. The National Bird of Pakistan Is:
(A) Chukor  ✓
(B) Pigeon
(C) Eagle
(D) Parrot

74. Aab-e-Hayat was written by:
(A) Muhmmad Hussain Azad  ✓
(B) Nazir Ahmad
(C) Allama Iqbal
(D) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

75. Silicon Valley Is located in:
(A) New York
(B) Florida
(C) Mexico
(D) California ✓

76. The only Hindu State* in the World is:
(A)  Sri Lanka
(B) Nepal ✓
(C) Bhutan
(D) India

* [Nepal was once the world's only Hindu state, but has ceased to be so following a declaration by the Parliament In 2006.]

77. The Nobel Prize for Economics was introduced In
(A) 1969 ✓
(B) 1988
(C) 1990
(D) 1987

78. Malabar is the old name of?
(A) Chennai
(B) Madras ✓
(C) Mumbai
(D) Calcutta

79. If the mood of a person swings from normal to extreme behavior is due to?
(A) Autism
(B) Schizophrenia
(C) Bipolar Disorder ✓
(D) Epilepsy

80. Novel “War and Peace” was written by:
(A) Leo Tolstoy ✓
(B) Tito
(C) Shelly
(D) Shakespeare

81. Most powerful hurricane to hit the Caribbean in September 2017 was?
(A) Maria
(B) Katrina
(C) Irma ✓
(D) None of these

82. Neutron was discovered by:
(A) Newton
(B) Priestly
(C) James Chadwick ✓
(D) B. Franklin

83. During the process of photosynthesis, plants releases the
(A) Carbon
(B) Oxygen ✓
(C) Nitrogen
(D) Ammonia

84. Hujjatullah-il-Baligha was written by?
(A) Shah Ismail
(B) Haji ShariatUliah
(C) Syed Ahmad Shaheed
(D) Shah Wali Ullah ✓

85. An example of a heredity disease is:
(A) Polio
(B) Hemophilia ✓
(C) Cholera
(D) Typhoid

86. Shape of the Milky Way Galaxy is:
(A) Rectangular
(B) Spiral ✓
(C) Elliptical
(D) Circular

87. There v/ere 69 members in first constituent assembly; this number was increased to in order to give representation to princely states arid refuges.
(A) 75
(B) 79 ✓
(C) 81
(D) 85

88. What is height of K.2?
(A) 6611 Meters
(B) 8611 Meters ✓
(C) 7611 Meters
(D) 9611 Motors

89. Before the partition of India in 1947, how many princeiy states existed?
(A) 49
(B) 54
(C) 562 ✓
(D) None of these

90. Name the biggest barrage of Pakistan?
(A) Sukhar Barrage ✓
(B) Taunsa Barrage
(C) Guddu Barrage
(D) Ghulam Muhammad Barrage

91. If you have “Caries" then which doctor should be consulted?
(A) Dermatologist
(B) Orthopaedist
(C) Dentist ✓
(D) Neurologist

92. The average weight of human heart is?
(A) 250 gm
(B) 300 gm ✓
(C) 350 gm
(D) 400 gm

93. Sharm-el-Sheikh is the name of?
(A) Airport of Iran
(B) Egyptian Seaport ✓ 
(C) A Mountain
(D) None of these

94. LNG stand for?
(A) Liquefied Natural Gas ✓
(B) Liquid Natural Gas
(C) Liquid Neutral Gas
(D) None of these

95. The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States by the people of:
(A) Britain
(B) Germany
(C) Canada
(D) France ✓

96. Habsha is the old name of?
(A) Ethiopia ✓
(B) Uganda
(C) Kenya
(D) Tanzania

97. Break bone fever is communicated by a mosquito; it is another name of:
(A) Dengue ✓
(B) Malaria
(C) Epilepsy
(D) All of these

98. Katas Raj Temple is in?
(A) Jhelum
(B) Chakwal ✓
(C) Lahore
(D) Attock

99. Amnesia is related to:
(A) Sleeping sickness
(B) Loss of sight
(C) Loss of hearing
(D) Loss of memory ✓

100. The British Government announcod the _____ annulment of Partition of Bengal in
(A) 1910
(B) 1911 ✓
(C) 1912
(D) 1926

PMS Past Papers General Knowledge 2016 [ Solved Papers]


1. Acoustics is the science of:
(A) Light ✓
(B) Waves
(C) Sound
(D) Colours
[Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.]
2. The art of breeding Silk Worm and production of Silk is called:
(A) Microbiology
(B) Sericulture ✓
(C) Biochemistry
(D) Horticulture
[Silk is a natural fiber that is produced by the silkworm--the caterpillar larva of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. The cultivation of silk from silkworms is a process known as silk farming, or sericulture. ... But having the right type of silkworm is only the first part of the process of sericulture.] Source Link
3. The science of celestial bodies is known as:
(A) Agronomy
(B) Coprology
(C) Astrology
(D) Astronomy ✓
[In more recent years, scientists have also begun to investigate the geology of the planets and other celestial bodies that make up our solar system. Planetary geology is the study of the solid matter that makes up celestial bodies, such as planets, moons, asteroids, and comets.Jun 19, 2014]
4. Telepathy is:
(A) Communication by sensory perceptions
(B) Communication between mind and heart
(C) Communication by means other than sensory perceptions ✓
(0) None of these

5. Pedagogy is the science of:
(A) Seeing
(B) Behaving
(C) Teaching ✓ 
(D) Learning
[As a result, education as a science – and its study – is 'still less a “science” and has little prestige (ibid.: 2). He continued, 'The dominant educational institutions of this country have had no concern with theory, its relation to practice, with pedagogy' (he defined pedagogy as the science of teaching).] Wiki
6. Study of maps and features of the Universe is called:
(A) Metaphysics
(B) Cosmography
(C) Cosmology
(D) Cartography ✓
[Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on a large scale. In its earliest form, it was what is now known as "celestial mechanics", the study of the heavens.]
7. Scientific study and measurement of behaviour is called:
(A) Psychiatry
(B) Psychology ✓
(C) Physiology
(D) Psycho-analysis
[Psychology is the scientific study of behavior, cognition, and emotion. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior.]
8. Etymology refers to the study of:
(A) insects
(B) Words ✓
(C) Medicines
(D) Reptiles
[The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία (etumología), itself from ἔτυμον (étumon), meaning "true sense", and the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". In linguistics, the term etymon refers to a word or morpheme (e.g., stem or root) from which a later word derives.]
9. Paediatrics is relevant to:
(A) Children ✓
(B) Pregnant women
(C) Old people
(D) bones
[Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... Pediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, and as primary care physicians.]
10. Shape of the Milky Way Galaxy is:
(A) Rectangular
(B) Spiral ✓
(C) Elliptical
(D) Circular
 [The spiral galaxies were characterized by disk shapes with spiral arms. It stood to reason that because the Milky Way was disk-shaped and because spiral galaxies were disk-shaped, the Milky Way was probably a spiral galaxy.]
11. Coldest planet of the Solar System is:
(A) Saturn
(B) Neptune ✓
(C) Earth
(D) Venus
 [It depends upon how you define "coldest." With Pluto out of the race, the farthest "real" planet from the Sun is Neptune. Neptune and its neighbor, Uranus, are known as the "ice giants," since they are composed of huge amounts of rock and water, ammonia, and methane ice crystals.]
12. Which of the following planets has the maximum number of Satellites:
(A) Venus
(B) Saturn
(C) Uranus
(D) Jupiter ✓
13. Which planet takes the longest time to go once around the Sun?
(A) Neptune ✓
(B) Mars
(C) Jupiter
(D) Earth
14. The first artificial satellite was launched by:
(A) Japan
(B) Russia ✓
(C) America
(D) France
15. The first Canadian woman in space was:
(A) Roberta Bonder ✓
(B1 Dirk Fremont
(C) Tamayo Mendez
(D) Marc Garneau
16. The first astronaut to set foot on moon was:
(A) Yuri Gagarin
(B) Edmund Hailey
(C) Tamayo Mendez
(D) Neil Armstrong ✓
17. The theory stating that new matter is always created to fill the space left by the Universe is called:
(A) Big Bang
(B) Steady State ✓
(C) Hubble’s Theory
(D) Black Hole
18. The velocity of sound in air at sea level’ is:
(A) 881 meters per second
(B) 771 meters per second
(C) 661 meters per second
(D) 561 meters per second
Complete Reference Guide of Sound
[This is not a good answer, because someoneto forgot to tell us the important temperature, and the given atmospheric pressure "at sea level" makes really no sense. In SI units with dry air at 20°C (68°F), the speed of sound c is 343 meters per second (m/s).]

19. Acceleration caused by gravity is:
(A) 23 feet per second2
(B) 32 feet per second2 ✓
(C) 42 feet per second2
(D) 52 feet per second2
20. A rocket needs the speed of to escape from earth's gravity.
(A) 22 miles per second
(B) 15 miles per second
(C) 12 miles per second
(D) 7 miles per second ✓
21. Sunlight is composed of:
(A) 6 colours
(B) 7 colours ✓
(C) 8 colours
(D) 9 colours
22. The rarest gas in air Is:
(A) Neon ✓
(B) Carbon Dioxide
(C) Helium
(D) Oxygen
23. Minor objects in Irregular shapes orbiting the sun are called:
(A) Vessel
(B) Asteroid ✓
(C) Meteors
(D) Comet
24. The lowest zone of atmosphere containing about seventy five percent of total mass of atmosphere and ninety percent of its water vapour is called:
(A) Troposphere ✓
(B) Lonosphere
(C) Aerosphere
(D) Stratosphere
25. The theory about the beginning of the Universe by a huge explosion is called:
(A) Binary
(B) Black Hole
(C) Big Bang ✓
(D) Steady State
26. Constellation is:
(A) Classification of stars satellites
(B) Classification of stars
(C) Patterns or groups of stars in the sky ✓
(D) Patterns or groups of satellites In the sky
27. The sun takes years to travel around the galaxy.
(A) One hundred years
(B) One millions years
(C) 225 million years ✓
(D) 225 years
28. Days and nights are equal throughout the year at:
(A) North America
(B) South Africa
(C) Equator ✓
(D) North Pole
29. Celestial body that affects tides of oceans is:
(A) Sun
(B) Moon ✓
(C) Galaxy
(D) Meteorite
30. Huge cloud of gas and dust in universe is called:
(A) Constellation
(B) Satellite
(C) Meteorite
(D) Nebula ✓
31. Outer surface of the sun is called:
(A) Chromosphere
(B) Photosphere
(C) Corona ✓
(D) lonosphere
[The atmosphere of the sun is composed of several layers, mainly the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona. It's in these outer layers that the sun's energy, which has bubbled up from the sun's interior layers, is detected as sunlight. The lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere is the photosphere.]
32. Sun’s diameter is:
(A) 3 million Km
(B) 2.5 million Km
(C) 1.4 million Km ✓ [1.391016 million Km]
(D) 1 million Km
 [The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.]
33. The largest planet is:
(A) Venus
(B) Jupiter ✓
(C) Mercury
(D) Mars
 [Largest Planet: Jupiter. The largest planet in our solar system by far is Jupiter, which beats out all the other planets in both mass and volume. Jupiter's mass is more than 300 times that of Earth, and its diameter, at 140,000 km, is about 11 times Earth's diameter.]
34. The continuous movement of continents is called Ccntinental:
(A) Shakes
(B) Drift ✓
(C) Motion
(D) Move
35. The layer of atmosphere* in which we live is called:
(A) Stratosphere
(B) Photosphere
(C) Lithosphere
(D) lonosphere

[* All options are wrong. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. This is the layer where we live and where weather happens. Temperature in this layer generally decreases with height. The boundary between the stratosphere and the troposphere is called the tropopause. The atmosphere has 4 layers: the troposphere that we live in near the surface of the earth; the stratosphere that houses the ozone layer; the mesosphere, a colder and lower density layer with about 0.1% of the atmosphere; and the thermosphere, the top layer, where the air is hot but very thin. ]
36. Study of fingerprints is called:
(A) Genetics
(B) Dactylography ✓
(C) Hematology
(D) Histology
37. Which rocks make the earth’s surface or crust?
(A) Sedimentary
(B) Igneous
(C) Metamorphic
(D) All of these ✓
38. Area in a desert where there is sufficient water for plants is called:
(A) Island
(B) Oasis ✓
(C) Green desert
(D) Greenland

39. Plate tectonics theory explains the movements of:
(A) Rockets
(B) Rivers
(C) Oceans
(D) Continents ✓
40. Silicon is also called:
(A) Stone Maker
(B) Ocean Maker
(C) Earth Maker ✓
(D) Mountain Maker

41. Days and nights are equal all the year at:
(A) New York
(B) Nairobi ✓
(C) Oslo
(D) Brussels

42. When Magma reaches the surface it is called:
(A) Moller magma
(B) Volcano
(C) Lava ✓
(D) Igneous lava

43. Which star is known as the Constant Star*?
(A) Sirius
(B) Canopus star
(C) North star ✓
(D) The sun

44. Which area is known as World's earthquake belt?
(A) Pacific ring of fire ✓
(B) Andes Range
(C) Sharm-el-Sneikh, Egypt
(D) Central and Atlantic Ridge *

’ A pole star is a visible star, preferably a prominent one, that is approximately aligned with the Earth's axis of rotation; that Is, a star whose apparent position is close to one of the celestial poles, and which lies approximately directly overhead when viewed from the Earth's North Pole or South Pole. A similar concept also applies to planets other than the Earth. In practice, the term pole star usually refers to Polaris, which is the current northern pole star, also known as the North Star.

45. Which of the following is the physics law of moments?
(A) The product of clockwise moments is equal to the product of anti-clockwise moments
(B) The sum of clockwise moments is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments ✓
(C) The product of clockwise moments is equal to the value of anti-clockwise moments
(D) The sum of clockwise moments equal to the value of anti-clockwise moments.

46. Which chemical element has properties of a metal and non-metals?
(A) Metalloid ✓
(B) Lanthanoid
(C) Actanoid
(D) Graphite

47. Which tube extends from mouth to anus?
(A) Alimentary canal ✓
(B) Root canal
(C) Basic canal
(D) Back canal

48. Where is the bile stored and intermittently released into the small intestine to aid digestion?
(A) Kidney
(B) Liver
(C) Gall Bladder ✓
(D) Pancreas

49. Blood circulates in which parts of the body?
(A) Veins
(B) Arteries
(C) Capillaries
(D) All of these ✓

50. Which blood group is a Universal Donor?
(A) Group A
(B) Group B
(C) Group AB
(D) Group O Negative ✓ 

51. Which part of the brain contains centers for the control of respiration, heart-beat and blood pressure?
(A) Medulla oblongata
(B) Medulla ✓
(C) Cerebellum
(D) Cerebrum

52. The structure in a cell which contains the genes is called:
(A) Genetics
(B) Saliva
(C) Marrow
(D) Chromosome ✓

53. Who coined the term gene?
(A) John Dalton
(B) Dalton Gene
(C) Wilhelm Johannes ✓
(D) Andrew Fleming

[Herold Georg Wilhelm Johannes Schweickerdt (28 February 1903, Schmie, Baden-Württemberg – 21 February 1977, Pretoria) was a German botanist.]

54. Vitamin A is essential for:
(A) Skeletal growth
(B) Preventing night blindness ✓
(C) Healthy epithelia tissue
(D) All of these

55. Which vitamin prevents hemorrhaging?
(A) B1
(B) B12
(C) E
(D) K ✓

56. How much blood does a normal adult person have in the body?
(A) About 6 to 7 litres
(B) About 2 to 3 litres
(C) About 4 to 5 litres ✓
(D) About 3 to 4 litres

57. Hydrochloric acid is necessary for easy digestion of:
(A) Fats
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Enzymes
(D) Proteins ✓

58. Which vitamin is provided by sunlight of the human body?
(A) Vitamin D ✓
(B) Vitamin C
(C) Vitamin E
(D) Vitamin A

59. When was HIV identified?
(A) 1987
(B) 1985
(C) 1983 ✓
(D) 1980

60. Which disease causes difficulty in breathing?
(A) Asthma ✓
(B) Anemia
(C) Astigmatism
(D) Autism

61. Which of the following is the most common form of color blindness, usually found in males?
(A) Difficulty in distinguishing red from green ✓
(B) Difficulty in distinguishing red from blue
(C) Difficulty in distinguishing red from orange
(D) Difficulty in distinguishing blue from black

62. Disease which travels itself from place to place is called:
(A) Endemic
(B) Epidemic
(C) Infection ✓
(D) Airborne

63. What is H5N1?
(A) Fungi
(B) Vaccine
(C) Virus ✓
(D) Bacteria

64. Objects having the same size, shape and measurement are:
(A) Similar
(B) Congruent ✓
(C) Symmetrical
(D) Variant

65. A line passing through a circle away from its centre is called:
(A) Radius
(B) Diameter
(C) Segment
(D) Chord ✓

66. The sum of the angles in a triangle is:
(A) 360°
(B) 180° ✓
(C) 280°
(D) 90°

67. According to the Pythagoras Theorem (When the hypotenuse is C):
(A) a2- b2 = c2
(B) a2 + b2 + c2 = 0
(C) a2 + b2 = c
(D) a2 + b2 = c2 ✓

68. Two polygons are similar if:
(A) All corresponding sides are proportional
(B) All corresponding angles are equal
(C) Both A and B ✓
(D) None of these

69. The area of a trapezium is:
(A) 1/2 x base x height
(B) 1/2 x base area x height
(C) 1/2 x sum of parallel sides x height ✓
(D) 1/2 x sum of parallel sides

70. The volume of a sphere is:
(A)  4/3 πr^3  ✓
(B) 2/3 πr^3
(C) πr^3
(D) 2πr

71. Mid-term breaking is applied to:
(A) Quadratic equations ✓
(B) Linear equations
(C) Perfect squares
(D) Polynomial functions

72. What is the next term for the sequence 486,162, 54,18, 6....
(A) 3
(B) 2 ✓
(C) 1
(D) 4

73. What is 0.004 x Q.5?
(A) 0.2
(B) 0.02
(C) 0.002 ✓
(D) 0.0002

74. In the equation of a straight line, what does the letter ‘C‘ represents?
(A) Gradient
(B) x Intercept
(C) Intercept ✓
(D) y Coordinate

75. When 73 is added to 89 and the amount is doubled, it gives the same result as the square of 18. What is the answer:
(A) 164
(B) 162 ✓
(C) 160
(D) 163

76. What devices accept data from outside the computer and transfer it into the CPU?
(A) Analogue to digital converters
(B) Sensors
(C) Input devices ✓
(D) Digital devices

77. Which short cut key is used to insert a new slide in power point presentation?
(A) Ctrl + S
(B) Ctrl + M ✓
(C) Ctrt + N
(D) Ctrl + B

78. Spam or fraudulent e-mails are also called:
(A) Phishing scams
(B) Junk mail ✓
(C) Pharming scams
(D) Malware viruses

79. Who was the inventor of Mouse?
(A) Douglas Engiebart ✓
(B) Ada Lovelace
(C) Charles Babbage
(D) None of these

80. Which is the largest hardware company of computers?
(A) Microsoft
(B) Dell
(C) HP ✓
(D) My Space

81. Which of the following is a conventional designation of pre-released software?
(A) Alpha
(B) Omega
(C) Raw
(D) Beta ✓

82. Temporary storage place for information in a computer is called:
(A) Back up
(B) Buffer ✓
(C) Binary file
(D) Data recorder

83. The Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act was passed in Pakistan in the year:
(A) 2013
(B) 2014
(C) 2015
(D) 2016 ✓

84. When was the last census held In Pakistan?
(A) 1972
(B) 1981
(C) 1998 ✓
(D) 2001

85. Maiakand Pass connects Peshawar with:
(A) Gilgit
(B) Swat
(C) Dir
(D) Chitral ✓

86. Headquarters of Arab League is located at:
(A) Tehran
(B) Cairo ✓
(C) Riyadh
(D) Tunis

87. Judicial Body of UN is called:
(A) International Court of Justice ✓
(B) General Assembly
(C) Security Council
(D) International Criminal Court

88. COP 22, the 22nd Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, was held in 2016 in:
(A) Paris
(B) Marrakesh ✓
(C) New York
(D) Moscow

89. Which country has the largest resources of crude oil?
(A) Russia
(C) Kuwait
(D) Saudi Arabia ✓

90. The highest battlefield in the world is:
(A) Tibet
(B) Siachen Glacier ✓
(C) Jafna
(D) Kashmir
91. Summer Olympics for the year 2020 will be held in:
(A) Tokyo ✓
(B) Beijing
(C) Athens
(D) Hanoi
92. A country’s total financial obligations to the rest of the world are known as:
(A) Total burden
(B) Total debt
(C) National liabilities
(D) External debt ✓

93. Brexit referendum was held on:
(A) October 23 2016
(B) August 23, 2016
(C) June 23, 2016 ✓
(D) April 23, 2016
94. Which political party does US President Elect belong to:
(A) Labour
(B) Liberals
(C) Democratic
(D) Republicans ✓
95. The term Track-II Diplomacy is used for:
(A) Managing relations between two countries using official channels
(B) Managing relations between two countries using unofficial channels ✓
(C) Diplomacy by diplomats during war
(D) None of above

96. The first of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals relates to:
(A) Climate Action
(B) Quality Education
(C) Poverty Alleviation ✓
(D) Marine Life

97. The largest producer of solar energy in the world is:
(A) Germany
(B) USA ✓
(C) Russia
(D) Holland

98.One barrel of Petroleum is equal to:
(A) 34.97 UK gallons
(B) 42 US gallons ✓
(C) 0.159 cubic metre
(D) None of these

99.First woman to win Nobel Prize was:
(A) Aung San Suu Kyi
(B) Mother Teresa
(C) Marie Currie (1903) in Physics  ✓
(D) Florence Nightingale

100. Hydrometer is used to measure:
(A) Acidity of water
(B) Specific gravity of a liquid ✓
(C) Pollution in water
(D) Gravity of milk

PPSC New Syllabus for General Ability MCQ Test

1. General Knowledge

The candidates are expected to display a general awareness of what and where of things and places, when and where of events, how things work, important personalities etc. Essentially it Is the test of general reading, experience and intellectual curiosity of the candidates.

2. Pakistan Studies

Candidates are expected to have basic knowledge of the historical perspective of the Pakistan movement, major events in the struggle for Pakistan, prominent personalities, post-independence problems, constitutional developments, foreign policy, economy, defence, Kashmir and other territorial disputes etc. The questions would also cover Pakistan's domestic issues and politics, land and people, regional issues, socio-economic issues, culture, music, sports, etc.

3. Islamic Studies

The candidates are expected to display basic knowledge of the Holy Quran, Hadith, life and times of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Khulfa-e-Rashideen, Arkan-e-lslam, broad knowledge of important events in Islamic History and prominent personalities. Non-Muslim candidates would be tested in the field ethics, comparative religions and questions of general nature.

4. Current Affairs

The candidates are expected to display a basic knowledge and understanding of history, politics and international affairs deemed necessary to understand current affairs. Questions may also relate to international Institutions, treaties, recent developments In Pakistan and abroad, global Issues including security, economy, human rights, environmental degradation, nuclear and other issues of similar nature.

5. Geography

Candidates are expected to have basic knowledge of Pakistan's geography, topography, environmental issues, demography, mineral wealth etc. They are also expected to have basic knowledge of geography of the world, geographic terms, prominent places and features.

6. Mathematics

Candidates are expected to have basic knowledge about mathematics, Including arithmetic, algebra and geometry and problem solving skills. Questions and problems may relate to: numbers; percentages; averages; ratio and proportions; equations; simplifications; number series; interest rates; time/dlstance/work related problems, basic formulae relating to areas, volumes etc. Use of calculators would not be allowed.

7. English

Candidates are expected to have basic knowledge of English grammar, parts of speech, prepositions, punctuation, active and passive voice, Idioms, proverbs, phrases, synonyms, antonyms, analogies, sentence construction etc. Candidates should be able to use English correctly.
8. Urdu
The candidates are expected to have a good command over Urdu language, its correct usage, grammar, idioms, and proverbs and should have basic knowledge of prominent Urdu writers and poets.

9. Everyday Science

The Candidates are expected to have basic knowledge of Biology, Physics and Chemistry, scientific terms, inventions, discoveries, human body, celestial bodies and environmental issues/problems. In general the candidates could be tested on knowledge of everyday observation and experience of things and phenomenon in the context of their scientific explanations.

10. Computer Skills

The candidates are expected to have basic knowledge of computers, hardware and software, commonly used terms, basic functions of important components of a PC, knowledge of MS Office, internet, e-mail, prominent personalities associated with I.T. and basic I.T. applications.
Important Note:

Candidates are advised to read:

  • At least one English newspaper regularly for the preparation of current affairs. At least 2 -3 months' newspapers' reading is must.
  • Advanced General Ability Tests (For Mathematical portion)
  • General Knowledge Advanced (Subjective)
  • Advanced Objective General Knowledge (One Liner)
  • Spectrum General Knowledge (MCQs)
  • -Advanced IQ Test Book Advanced Ultimate Aptitude Tests Advanced One Paper MCQs Guide

“I am an Indian first second and last.”
Advice to young Raja of Mahmudabad
Circa 1925

"I have nothing to do with this pseudo-religious approach that Gandhi is advocating"
Jinnah speaking to Durga Das in London

“Come forward as servants of Islam, organise the people economically, socially, educationally and politically and I am sure that you will be a power that will be accepted by everybody.”
Presidential Address at the All India Muslim League, Lahore
March 23, 1940

"I have always maintained that no nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men. No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men. There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women."
Speech at Islamia College for women
March 25, 1940

“The prosperity and advancement of a nation depend upon its intelligentsia, and Muslim India is looking forward to her young generation and education classes to give a bold lead for our guidance and a brilliant record of histrorical achievements and traditions. Islam expect every Muslim to do this duty, and if we realise our responsibility time will come soon when we shall justify ourselves worthy of a glorious past.”
December 24, 1940

“The vital contest in which we are engaged is not only for the material gain but also the very existence of the soul of Muslim nation, Hence I have said often that it is a matter of life and death to the Musalmans and is not a counter for bargaining.”
Predisential Address devlivered at the Special Pakistan Session of the Punjab Muslim Students Federation
March 2, 1941

“I particularly appeal to our intelligentsia and Muslim students to come forward and rise to the occasion. You have performed wonders in the past. You are still capable of repeating the history. You are not lacking in the great qualities and virtues in comparison with the other nations. Only you have to be fully conscious of that fact and to act with courage, faith and unity.”
Message to Pakistan Day, issued from Delhi
March 23, 1943

"No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live.”
Speech at a meeting of the Muslim University Union, Aligarh
March 10, 1944

“Pakistan not only means freedom and independce but the Muslim Ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope other will share with us”
Message to Frontier Muslim Students Federation
June 18, 1945

“If we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor... you are free- you are free to go to your temples mosques or any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the state... in due course of time Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to Muslims- not in a religious sense for that is the personal faith of an individual- but in a political sense as citizens of one state”
Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Karachi
August 11, 1947

"Our object should be peace within, and peace without. We want to live peacefully and maintain cordial friendly relations with our immediate neighbours and with the world at large."
August 15th, 1947

“My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence. Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.”
Eid-ul-Azha Message to the Nation
October 24, 1947

“You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.”
Address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir, Karachi
February 21, 1948

“That freedom can never be attained by a nation without suffering and sacrifice has been amply borne out by the recent tragic happenings in this subcontinent. We are in the midst of unparalleled difficulties and untold sufferings; we have been through dark days of apprehension and anguish; but I can say with confidence that with courage and self-reliance and by the Grace of God we shall emerge triumphant.”
Speech at a Mammoth Rally at the University Stadium, Lahore
October 30, 1947

“We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.”
Address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi
October 11, 1947

“We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind”
Speech at the opening ceremony of State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi
July 1, 1948 .....

Chenab River

The Chenab River is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahul and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh, India. In its upper reaches it is also known as the Chandrabhaga. It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu, and then by the Ravi River. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad ('Five Rivers'), which joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.

The river was known to Indians in Vedic period as Ashkini or Iskmati and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks. In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River).
The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic.

Dasht River

Dasht River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Mirani Dam is being built on Dasht river to provide drinking water to Gwadar city.

Dashtiari River

Dashtiari River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan.

Gambila River

Gambila River river, also called the Tochi River, is located in Bannu District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

It's source are the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, which it runs parallel too and finally joins.

The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irragate a large area of land that it runs through. Particularly that belonging to the Bakkakhel Wazirs, and Miri and Barakzai Bannuchis.

Ghaggar-Hakra River

The Ghaggar-Hakra River is the (rainy) seasonal river in India and the Hakra River riverbed in Pakistan. It is often identified with the Vedic Sarasvati River, but it is disputed if at all Rigvedic references to the Sarasvati River refer to this river. It is a dried out river which flow during rainy season only and used to flush out flood waters of Punjab.

Estimated period at which the river dried up range, very roughly, from 2500 to 2000 BC, with a further margin of error at either end of the date-range. This may be precise in geological terms, but for the Indus Valley Civilization (2800 to 1800 BC) it makes all the difference whether the river dried up in 2500 (its early phase) or 2000 (its late phase). Similarly, for the Gandhara grave culture, often identified with the early influx of Indo-Aryans from ca. 1600 BC, it makes a great difference whether the river dried up a millennium earlier, or only a few generations ago, so that by contact with remnants of the IVC like the Cemetery H culture, legendary knowledge of the event may have been acquired.

The identification with the Sarasvati River is based the descriptions in Vedic texts (e.g. in the enumeration of the rivers in Rigveda 10.75.05, the order is Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutlej), and other geological and paleobotanical findings. This however, is disputed. The Victorian era scholar C.F. Oldham was the first to suggest that geological events had redirected the river, and to connect it to the lost Saraswati: "[it] was formerly the Sarasvati; that name is still known amongst the people, and the famous fortress of Sarsuti or Sarasvati was built upon its banks, nearly 100 miles below the present junction with the Ghaggar." (Oldham 1893: 51-52) 

Ghaggar River

The Ghaggar is a seasonal river in India, flowing when water is available from monsoon rains. It originates in the Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows through Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan; just southwest of Sirsa in Haryana and by the side of Tibi in Rajasthan, this seasonal river feeds two irrigation canals that extend into Rajasthan.

The present-day Sarasvati River originates in a submontane region (Ambala district) and joins the Ghaggar near Shatrana in PEPSU. Near Sadulgarh (Hanumangarh) the Naiwala channel, a dried out channel of the Sutlej, joins the Ghaggar. Near Suratgarh the Ghaggar is then joined by the dried up Drishadvati river.

The wide river bed of the Ghaggar river suggest that the river once flowed full of water, and that it formerly continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch. It supposedly dried up due to the capture of its tributaries by the Indus and Yamuna rivers, and the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing. This is supposed to have happened at the latest in 1900 BCE, but perhaps much earlier.

Puri and Verma (1998) have argued that the present-day Tons River was the ancient upper-part of the Sarasvati River, which would then had been fed with Himalayan glaciers. The terrain of this river contains pebbles of quartzite and metamorphic rocks, while the lower terraces in these valleys do not contain such rocks. 

In India there are also various small or middle-sized rivers called Sarasvati or Saraswati. One of them flows from the west end of the Aravalli Range into the east end of the Rann of Kutch.

Hakra River

The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that until about 2000 BC - 1500 BC was the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India.

Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers.

Indus Valley Civilization

The river was also of great importance to the Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeologists have suggested that the drying up of this river may have been one of the causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Along the course of the Ghaggar-Hakra river are many archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization; but not further south than the middle of Bahawalpur district. It could be that the permanent Sarasvati ended there, and its water only reached the sea in very wet rainy seasons. It may also have been affected by much of its water being taken for irrigation.

Over 600 sites of the Indus civilization have been discovered on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries. In contrast to this, only 90 to 96 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries (about 36 sites on the Indus river itself.) V.N. Misra states that over 530 Harappan sites (of the more than 800 known sites, not including Degenerate Harappan or OCP) are located on the Hakra-Ghaggar. The other sites are mainly in Kutch-Saurashtra (nearly 200 sites), Yamuna Valley (nearly 70 Late Harappan sites) and in the Indus Valley/ Baluchistan (less than 100 sites).

Early Harappan sites are mostly situated on the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river bed, and some in the Indus Valley. Most of the Mature Harappan sites are located in the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river valley, and some on the Indus and in the Kutch-Saurashtra. However in the late Harappan period the number of late Harappan sites in the middle Hakra channel and in the Indus valley diminishes, while it expands in the upper Ghaggar-Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra. The abandonement of many sites on the Hakra-Ghaggar between the Harappan and the Late Harappan phase was probably due to the drying up of the Hakra-Ghaggar river.

Because most of the Indus Valley sites are actually located on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries and not on the Indus river, some archaeologists have proposed to use the term "Indus Sarasvati Civilization" to refer to the Harappan culture.

In a survey conducted by M.R. Mughal between 1974 and 1977, over 400 sites were mapped along 300 miles of the Hakra river. The majority of these sites were dated to the fourth or third millennium BCE.

Painted Grey Ware sites (ca. 1000 BCE) have been found on the bed and not on the banks of the Ghaggar-Hakra river.

The Ghaggar-Hakra and its ancient tributaries
Satellite photography has shown that the Ghaggar-Hakra was indeed a large river that dried up probably between ca. 2500 to 2000 B.C. The dried out Hakra river bed is between three and ten kilometers wide. Recent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibly also the Yamuna once flowed into the Saraswati river bed. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses over the time.

Paleobotanical information also documents the aridity that developed after the drying up of the river. (Gadgil and Thapar 1990 and references therein). The disappearance of the river may have been caused by earthquakes which may have led to the redirection of its tributaries. It has also been suggested that the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing in what is now Pakistan may have also contributed to the drying up of the river.

The Ghaggar-Hakra and the Sutlej

There are no Harappan sites on the Sutlej in its present lower course, only in its upper course near the Siwaliks, and along the dried up channel of the ancient Sutlej, which indicates the Sutlej did flow into the Sarasvati at that period of time.

It has been shown by satellite imagery that at Ropar the Sutlej river suddenly flows away from the Ghaggar in a sharp turn. The beforehand narrow Ghaggar river bed itself is becoming suddenly wider at the conjunction where the Sutlej should have met the Ghaggar river. And there is a major paleochannel between the point where the Sutlej takes a sharp turn and where the Ghaggar river bed widens. 

In later texts like the Mahabharata, the Rigvedic Sutudri ("swiftly flowing") is called Shatudri (Shatadru/Shatadhara), which means a river with 100 flows. The Sutlej (and the Beas and Ravi) have frequently changed their courses. The Sutlej has also probably sometimes flown into the Beas, and the combined stream sometimes in the Ghaggar River. The confluence of the Ghaggar and the Sutlej was downstream from the Kurukshetra region, where most Harappan sites are located.

The Ghaggar-Hakra and the Yamuna

There are also no Harappan sites on the present Yamuna river. There are however Painted Gray Ware (1000 - 600 BC) sites on the Yamuna channel, showing that the river must have flown in the present channel during this period. The distribution of the Painted Gray Ware sites in the Ghaggar river valley indicates that during this period the Ghaggar river was already partly dried up.

Scholars like Raikes (1968) and Suraj Bhan (1972, 1973, 1975, 1977) have shown that based on archaeological, geomorphic and sedimentological research the Yamuna may have flown into the Saraswati during Harappan times. There are several often dried out river beds (paleochannels) between the Sutlej and the Yamuna, some of them two to ten kilometres wide. They are not always visible on the ground because of excessive silting and encroachment by sand of the dried out river channels. The Yamuna may have flown into the Sarasvati river through the Chautang or the Drishadvati channel, since many Harappan sites have been discovered on these dried out river beds.

Gilgit River 

Gilgit River is a tributary of the Indus River, and flows past the town of Gilgit. It is located in the Northern Areas of Kashmir, Pakistan.

Gomal River

Gomal River is a river in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with its headwaters in the south-east of Ghazni.

The headwater springs of the Gomal's main leg come together close to the fort of Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited primarily by Kharoti and Suleiman Khel Pashtuns.

The Gomal's chief tributary is the Zhob River. Within Pakistan, Gomal river surrounds South Waziristan agency, forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan. The river passes then through the Damaan plain in Kulachi Tehsil and later on through Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil and then finally falls in river Indus.

Hub River 

Hub River is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi. Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River in the arid plains north of Karachi. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in the Lasbella district of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. The Mahseer (Tor putitora), an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, grows up to 2m in length and provides for excellent angling.It is in pakistan.

Hungol River

Hungol River or Hingol River is located in Makran, Balochistan, Pakistan.

The Hungol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles and buttresses, the river winding between. Some 350 miles in length, the Hungol is Balochistan's longest river. Unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains, the Hungol always has flowing water in it. The water is crystal–clear, reflecting the incredible blue of the sky. It makes for picture–postcard scenery. Hungol river and valley are located in Hungol National Park.

Hunza River

Hunza River is the principal river of Hunza, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas (gorges) which are fed by glaciers. It is joined by the Gilgit River and the Naltar River before it flows into the Indus River.

The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south. The Karakoram Highway crosses the Hunza River near Hunza and Nagar valleys.

Indus River 

Indus is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent. Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through in Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Areas, flowing through the North in a southernly direction along the entire length of country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city Karachi. The total length of the river is 3200 km (1988 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 450,000 square miles. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometres. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and the extinct Sarasvati River, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu ("Seven Rivers") delta in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It has 20 major tributaries.

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. It also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh-Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacieral waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges (15,000-17,000 feet) near the Nanga Parbat massif It swiftly flows across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjab and Sind, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named as Satnad River (sat = seven, nadi = river) as the river was now carrying the waters of Kabul River, Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Himalayan ranges of Tibet, Kashmir and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch. It is the Official and National River of Pakistan in Urdu as Qaumi Daryaa and Sindhi it is called Daryaa Badshah ,The King River.


Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.
The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), such as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The IVC was extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach to the darcon from east of River Jhelum to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. The coast settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Oxus river at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan (Kenoyer 1998:96), and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon river is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90 to 96 of the over 800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus. 

Some scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 to 600 BCE, when Mohenjo Daro and Harappa had already been abandoned. However many modern researchers believe that the IVC was indeed an Aryan civilization. Researchers such as professor Egbert Richter Ushanas concerning the IVC seals has said, "All the seals are based on Vedas -- Rig Veda and Atharva Veda." The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rigveda. Sanskrit sindhu generically means "river, stream", probably from a root sidh "to go, move"; sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian hinterland and its frontier with Afghanistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - Greek forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Indian campaign. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Gujarat, Punjab and Rajputana.

The word "India" is a reference to the Indus River.


The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Arabian Sea, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometers of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalaya provide the next largest contibution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Ravi, Jhellum, Chenab and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea by marine geologists Peter Clift and Jerzy Blusztajn has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab Rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges and were captured after that time. Earlier work, also by Peter Clift, showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalaya between the Sutlej and the Yamuna Rivers, close to modern day Chandigarh. The Saraswati river was totally dried by 1900 BC as confirmed by archeological hydrological radio carbon datings.


The Indus delta is one of the driest in the Indian subcontinent, lying just to the west of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan - and rainfall is extraordinarily erratic owing to the passage of cyclones from the Arabian Sea. The Punjab plains, however, receive considerable rainfall from the summer monsoon: at Abbottabad the average annual rainfall is around 1,200mm (47 inches) and at Murree around 1,700mm (67 inches) with as much as 730mm (28 inches) in July and August alone. The upper basin of the Indus receives 4-8 inches of rainfall (higher in the west) in the winter months owing to northwestern winds. Higher elevations in Kashmir and the Northern Areas receives a large amount of precipitation in the form of snow, but the lower valleys are extremely dry and quite warm in the summer. Annual temperatures fall below freezing in the northern mountainous regions in the winter, while exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the plains of Punjab and Sindh in the summer. Jacobabad, which is one of the hottest spots in the world, lies to the west of the river in Sindh.


Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babar writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the BaberNameh). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works.

The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderate, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river distributes into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns.


The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the peoples of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 4,450 feet long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over five million acres (20,000 km²).

After partition, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan also constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 9,000 feet long and 470 feet high, with a 50 mile-long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 3,000 feet long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, the Northwest Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.


The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, with Kashmiris who practise both Islam and Hinduism. As it descends into Northern Areas of Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Balochi, and of other Afghan stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Iran and Afghanistan. The eastern banks are largely populated with peoples of Punjabi stock, with smaller populations of Sindhis and people from regions in modern India. In northern Punjab and the NWFP, Pathan peoples and ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Punjabi peoples. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Serakai peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi, Gujarati, Punjabi and Urdu-speaking Mohajir backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Balochi and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan.

Modern issues

A flooded Indus river inundates the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh highway.

Due to its location and vast water resources, Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society.

Indus Waters treaty

After the partition of India in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India - disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India the control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, Sutlej, Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, Jhelum, Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baghlighar project).


Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the nations. Pakistan does generally allow Indian citizens to visit the country for religious purposes, However, owing to the volatile nature of bilateral relations, most pilgrimage and religious ceremonies are performed by Hindus in Kashmir.


There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, Water-clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

Jhelum River 

Jehlum River or Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus River.


A photograph from 1900 shows a passenger traversing the river precariously seated in a small suspended cradle.

The river Jhelum was called Vitasta by the ancient Indians in the Vedic period and Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks. The Vitastā is mentioned as one of the major river by the holy scriptures of the Indo-Aryans—the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitasta must have been one of the seven rivers (sapta-sindhu) mentioned so many times in the Rigveda. The name survives the a Kashmiri name for this river as Vyath.

The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in the Dionysiaca (section 26, line 350) makes the Hydaspes a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumas and the cloud-goddess Elektra. He was the brother of Iris the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river.

Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in 326 BC at the Battle of the Hydaspes where he defeated the Indian king, Porus. According to Arrian (Anabasis, 29), he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala (or Bucephala) to honour his famous horse Bukephalis which was buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. According to a historian of Gujrat district,Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephala was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephala, Alexander`s dead horse. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.


The river Jhelum rises from north-eastern Jammu and Kashmir and is fed by glaciers, and then passes through the Srinagar district. At the city of Srinagar, the serpentine Jhelum, along with the lake Dal which lies in its course, presents a very picturesque site. The Kishenganga(Neelum)River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it near Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley.It also connects with Pakistan and Pakistan-held Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

Dams and Barrages

Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5.9 million acre-feet (7.3 km³)
Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft³/s (24,000 m³/s).
Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft³/s (18,000 m³/s).


The Upper Jhelum Canal runs from Mangla to the Chenab.
The Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal runs from the Rasul barrage to the Chenab.
The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal runs from the Chashma Barrage on the Indus River to the Jhelum river downstream of Rasul Barrage.

Kabul River

Kabul River or Kabal River is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. It is the main river in the eastern part of Afghanistan. It flows 700 km before joining the Indus River near Attock . It passes through the cities of Kabul, Chaharbagh, Jalalabad, and (flowing into Pakistan some 30 km north of the Khyber Pass) Nowshera. The major tributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Panjshir, Kunar and Alingar rivers.

The Kabul river itself is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows. Its largest tributary is the Kunar, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacier in Chitral, Pakistan and once it flows south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.

This river is attested in the Rig Veda, the earliest scripture of Hinduism, under the name Kubhā (many of the rivers of Afghanistan are mantioned in the Rig Veda). The Sanskrit word later changed to Kābul.

Swaan River

The Swaan River is the most important stream of the Pothohar region of Pakistan. It drains much of the water of Pothohar. It starts near a small village Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simlbee Dam, which is reservoir of water for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range and that is a wonderful phenomenon of nature. The place is called Swan Cut. No stream can cut such a high mountain. It proves the Swaan was there before the formation of this range. And when the mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course though Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Swaan near Sihala.

Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where famous bridge Cock Pull is constructed over it. Another famous, Lai stream joins this stream near Swaan Camp. After walking a tortuous path and creating a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh where it falls into the Indus river. This relatively small stream is more than 250 kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes. For grinding wheat, you can find ancient types of flour mills near Chakian.Fishing is not possible in this stream as a profession. Rohu is the main species of fish in this stream.

Kundar River 

Kundar River is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Kundar River and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River.

The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc.

Kunhar River 

Kunhar River is located in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. A main source of the river is Lulusar lake, nearly 48km from Naran Valley. Glaciers of Malka Parbat and Makra Peak and the waters of Saiful Muluk lake feed the river. The Kunhar flows through the entire Kaghan Valley through Jalkhand, Naran, Kaghan, Jared, Paras and Balakot, and joins the Jhelum River.

The Kunhar river trout is considered to be the best throughout the sub-continent

Kurram River 

The Kurrum River flows in the Kurrum Valley, stretching across the Afghan-Pakistani border west to east (crosses from the Paktia Province of Afghanistan into the Kohat border region of Pakistan) at 33°49′N 69°58′E, about 150 km west-to-south-west of the Khyber Pass.

The Kurram Agency is part of the Peshāwar Division of the Northwest Frontier Province. The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of the Safed Koh (Range), and enters the plains a north of Bannu, and joins the Indus River at 32°35′N 71°27′E near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 miles). The district has an area of 3,310 km² (1,278 sq miles); pop. approx. 300,000. It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Turis, a tribe of Turki and Parthian origin who are supposed to have subjugated the Bangash Pathans about six hundred years ago.

It is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan.

The Kurram River crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad and in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez. The route crossed the Peiwar Pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of Parachinar, which was blocked by snow for several months of the year.

Formerly the Kurram Valley was under the government of Kabul, and every five or six years a military expedition was sent to collect the revenue, the soldiers living meanwhile at free quarters on the people. It was not until about 1848 that the Turis were brought directly under the control of Kabul, when a governor was appointed, who established himself in Kurram. The Turis, being Shiah Muslims, never liked the Afghan rule.

During the second Afghan War, when Sir Frederick Roberts advanced by way of the Kurram Valley and the Peiwar Kotal to Kabul, the Turis lent him every assistance in their power, and in consequence their independence was granted them in 1880.

The administration of the Kurram Valley was finally undertaken by the British government, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1890. Technically it ranked, not as a British district, but as an agency or administered area.

Two expeditions in the Kurram Valley also require mention: 

(1) The Kurram expedition of 1856 under Brigadier-General Sir Neville Chamberlain. The Turis on the first annexation of the Kohat district by the British had given much trouble. They had repeatedly leagued with other tribes to harry the Miranzai valley, harbouring fugitives, encouraging resistance, and frequently attacking Bangash and Khattak villages in the Kohat district. Accordingly, in 1856 a British force of 4,896 troops traversed their country, and the tribe entered into engagements for future good conduct. 

(2) The Kohat-Kurram expedition of 5,897 under Colonel W. Hill. During the frontier risings of 1897 the inhabitants of the Kurram valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzais, were infected by the general excitement, and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts. A force of 14,230 British troops traversed the country, and the tribesmen were severely punished. In Lord Curzon's reorganization of the frontier in 1900-1901, the British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, and were replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe.

In recent years the Kurram Valley has once again assumed a very strategic position and has been an area of intense military activity between the Taliban and American and allied forces.

Lyari River 
Lyari River is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Lyari River passes through the city of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea. Lyari river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Malir River.

Malir River 

Malir River is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir River passes through the city of Karachi from northeast to the centre and drains into the Arabian Sea. Malir river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Lyari has two other little river help one is Thadho and other is Sukhan.In a rainy season this river flow with lot of water and millions of gallons of water waste in Arabian Sea. If the goverment becomes searious to this matter and construct a dam on this river, it will benefit the whole of Karachi a great deal.


The Panjkora River rises rises high in the Hindu Kush at lat. 35.45 and joins the Swat River near Chakdara, Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan. Its name is derived from the Persian for 'panj' (meaning 'five') and 'kora' (meaning 'river').

Panjnad River

Panjnad River (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad near Uch Sharif. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.

Beyond the confluence of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab.

Ravi River 

The Ravi River is a river in India and Pakistan. It is one of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. The Ravi was known as Parushani or Iravati to Indians in Vedic times and Hydraotes to the Ancient Greeks. It originates in the Himalayas in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh following a north-westerly course. It turns to the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur. It then flows along the Indo-Pak border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab river. The total length of the river is about 720 km. The waters of the Ravi river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan. It is also called 'The river of Lahore' since that great city is located on its eastern bank. On its western bank is located the famous tomb of Jahangir.

Rig Veda

Part of the battle of the ten kings was fought on the Parushani river, which according to Yaska (nirukta 9.26) refers to the Iravati river (Ravi River) in the Punjab. Macdonell and Keith write that "the name [Parusni] is certainly that of the river later called Ravi (Iravati)"

Shigar River

Shigar River is located in Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan. The Shigar River is formed from the melt water of the Baltoro Glacier and Biafo Glacier. The river is tributary to Indus River and meets the Indus in Skardu valley.

Sutlej River 

Sutlej River (also known as Satluj), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through Indian Punjab in northern India. Its source is in Tibet near Mount Kailash and its terminus in Pakistani Punjab. It is the easternmost afluent of the Punjab, and it receives the Beas River in the state of Punjab, India and continues into Pakistan to join the Chenab River to form the Panjnad River, which further down its course joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

The Sutlej was known as Shatadru or Suṭudri to Indians in Vedic period and Zaradros or Hesidros to the Greeks, and Sydrus to the Romans.
The waters of the river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan. At present, most of its water is diverted to irrigation canals and used up in India. The Bhakra-Nangal Dam is a huge multipurpose dam on the river.

There is substantial evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 B.C. the Sutlej was once an important tributary of the Sarasvati River, instead of the Indus River. It is believed that tectonic activity created elevation changes that redirected the Sutlej from southeast to southwest. Once flowing in its new westward direction, the river eventually joined the Beas river. As a result, the mighty Sarasvati River began to dry up, causing the desertification of Cholistan and Sindh, as well as the abandonment of numerous ancient human settlements along its banks.

A canal is being built between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers, known as the SLY. 

Swat River 

Swat River flows from Hindukush Mountains through Kalam valley and merges into Kabul River in peshawer valley Sarhad, Pakistan.

Swat River irrigates vast area of Swat District and contributes to fishing industry of the region. Saidu Group's of teaching hospitals also located at the banks of Swat River. Malamjaba ski resort is about 10 miles away from the river. Ayub Bridge is one of the attractions for visitors. The scenery attracts many tourists from all over Pakistan during the summer.

It is said that Alexander the Great crossed the Swat River with part of his army and before turning south to subdue the locals at what are now Barikoot and Odegram. Also, the banks of this river, which was earliest known as Shrivastu, later Suvastu and currently the present name, is the place of origin of the Shrivastava sub-clan of the Indo-Aryan Kayastha clan
Some 30 years ago, the water was fit for drinking even in Mingora (100 km downstream from Kalam), but now it is not safe even in Kalam.

Tochi river

Tochi river is located in North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Tochi river flows eastward, in North Waziristan, to join the Kurram River and the Indus. It surrounds Waziristan in the North while the Gomal River river surrounds South Waziristan.

It is also sometimes referred to as the Gambila River.

Zhob River

Zhob River is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Zhob Rivers and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River. Zhob city is located on banks of Zhob river.

The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc.



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