July 2015

Everyday Science Notes of Fingerprinting

Fingerprinting, method of identification using the impression made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips. No two persons have exactly the same arrangement of ridge patterns, and the patterns of any one individual remain unchanged through life. To obtain a set of fingerprints, the ends of the fingers are inked and then pressed or rolled one by one on some receiving surface. Fingerprints may be classified and filed on the basis of the ridge patterns, setting up an identification system that is almost infallible.

The first recorded use of fingerprints was by the ancient Assyrians and Chinese for the signing of legal documents. Probably the first modern study of fingerprints was made by the Czech physiologist Johannes Evengelista Purkinje, who in 1823 proposed a system of classification that attracted little attention. The use of fingerprints for identification purposes was proposed late in the 19th century by the British scientist Sir Francis Galton, who wrote a detailed study of fingerprints in which he presented a new classification system using prints of all ten fingers, which is the basis of identification systems still in use. In the 1890s the police in Bengal, India, under the British police official Sir Edward Richard Henry, began using fingerprints to identify criminals. As assistant commissioner of metropolitan police, Henry established the first British fingerprint files in London in 1901. Subsequently, the use of fingerprinting as a means for identifying criminals spread rapidly throughout Europe and the United States, superseding the old Bertillon system of identification by means of body measurements.

As crime-detection methods improved, law enforcement officers found that any smooth, hard surface touched by a human hand would yield fingerprints made by the oily secretion present on the skin. When these so-called latent prints were dusted with powder or chemically treated, the identifying fingerprint pattern could be seen and photographed or otherwise preserved. Today, law enforcement agencies can also use computers to digitally record fingerprints and to transmit them electronically to other agencies for comparison. By comparing fingerprints at the scene of a crime with the fingerprint record of suspected persons, officials can establish absolute proof of the presence or identity of a person.
The confusion and inefficiency caused by the establishment of many separate fingerprint archives in the United States led the federal government to set up a central agency in 1924, the Identification Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). This division was absorbed in 1993 by the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division, which now maintains the world’s largest fingerprint collection. Currently the FBI has a library of more than 234 million civil and criminal fingerprint cards, representing 81 million people. In 1999 the FBI began full operation of the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), a computerized system that stores digital images of fingerprints for more than 36 million individuals, along with each individual’s criminal history if one exists. Using IAFIS, authorities can conduct automated searches to identify people from their fingerprints and determine whether they have a criminal record. The system also gives state and local law enforcement agencies the ability to electronically transmit fingerprint information to the FBI. The implementation of IAFIS represented a breakthrough in crimefighting by reducing the time needed for fingerprint identification from weeks to minutes or hours.

Infrared Radiation
Infrared Radiation, emission of energy as electromagnetic waves in the portion of the spectrum just beyond the limit of the red portion of visible radiation (see Electromagnetic Radiation). The wavelengths of infrared radiation are shorter than those of radio waves and longer than those of light waves. They range between approximately 10-6 and 10-3 (about 0.0004 and 0.04 in).
Infrared radiation may be detected as heat, and instruments such as bolometers are used to detect it. See Radiation; Spectrum.
Infrared radiation is used to obtain pictures of distant objects obscured by atmospheric haze, because visible light is scattered by haze but infrared radiation is not. The detection of infrared radiation is used by astronomers to observe stars and nebulas that are invisible in ordinary light or that emit radiation in the infrared portion of the spectrum.
An opaque filter that admits only infrared radiation is used for very precise infrared photographs, but an ordinary orange or light-red filter, which will absorb blue and violet light, is usually sufficient for most infrared pictures. Developed about 1880, infrared photography has today become an important diagnostic tool in medical science as well as in agriculture and industry. Use of infrared techniques reveals pathogenic conditions that are not visible to the eye or recorded on X-ray plates. Remote sensing by means of aerial and orbital infrared photography has been used to monitor crop conditions and insect and disease damage to large agricultural areas, and to locate mineral deposits. See Aerial Survey; Satellite, Artificial. In industry, infrared spectroscopy forms an increasingly important part of metal and alloy research, and infrared photography is used to monitor the quality of products. See also Photography: Photographic Films.
Infrared devices such as those used during World War II enable sharpshooters to see their targets in total visual darkness. These instruments consist essentially of an infrared lamp that sends out a beam of infrared radiation, often referred to as black light, and a telescope receiver that picks up returned radiation from the object and converts it to a visible image.

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b) Use the following words, expressions and idioms in your
own sentences so as to bring out their meaning:
1- Trudge along
2- Point-blank
Close enough to go directly to a target
3- In the doldrums Depressed, dull and listless
Dean's in the doldrums for most of every winter. This
expression alludes to the maritime doldrums, a belt of
calms and light winds north of the equator in which sailing
ships were often becalmed. [Early 1800s]
4- Dole out / on the dole
receiving payment from the government, as relief
They couldn't afford any luxuries while living on the dole.
5- At cross purposes
When people are at cross purposes, they misunderstand
each other or have different or opposing objectives
With aims or goals that conflict or interfere with one another
I'm afraid the two departments are working at cross
This idiom, first recorded in 1688, may have begun as a
17th-century parlor game called “cross-purposes,” in which
a series of subjects (or questions) were divided from their
explanations (or answers) and distributed around the room.
Players then created absurdities by combining a subject
taken from one person with an explanation taken from
6- Check by jowl
in close intimacy, side by side
:a row of houses cheek by jowl
7- Succinctly
Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words;
concise and terse
a succinct reply; a succinct style.
8- Hilarious detract from
9- Plain sailing
Easy going; straightforward, unobstructed progress The first
few months were difficult, but I think it's plain sailing from
here on.
Alluding to navigating waters free of hazards, such as rocks
or other obstructions, this term was transferred to other
activities in the early 1800s.
b) Use any five of the following expressions in your own
sentences to illustrate their meaning:
1- To bear the brunt of
Put up with the worst of some bad circumstance
It was the secretary who had to bear the brunt of the
doctor's anger.
This idiom uses brunt in the sense of "the main force of an
enemy's attack", which was sustained by the front lines of
the defenders. [Second half of 1700s]
2- To call a spade a spade
A person who calls a spade a spade is one speaks frankly
and makes little or no attempt to conceal their opinions or to
spare the feelings of their audience.
3- To fight shy of
Avoid meeting or confronting someone
I have had to fight shy of invitations that would exhaust
time and spirits"(Washington Irving, Life and Letters,
This usage may allude to a military reluctance to meet or
engage with the enemy. [Late 1700s]
4- To cry over the spilt milk This idiom means that getting
upset after something has gone wrong is pointless; it can't
be changed so it should be accepted.
5- To burn the candle at both ends
Someone who burns the candle at both ends lives life at a
hectic pace, doing things which are likely to affect their
health badly.
Exhaust one's energies or resources by leading a hectic life.
Joseph's been burning the candle at both ends for weeks,
working two jobs during the week and a third on weekends.
This metaphor originated in France and was translated into
English in Randle Cotgrave's Dictionary (1611), where it
referred to dissipating one's wealth. It soon acquired its
present broader meaning.
6- To rob peter to pay Paul
If you rob Peter to pay Paul, you try to solve one problem,
but create another in doing so, often through short-term
7- To take the bull by the horns
Taking a bull by its horns would be the most direct but also
the most dangerous way to try to compete with such an
When we use the phrase in everyday talk, we mean that the
person we are talking about tackles their problems directly
and is not worried about any risks involved.8- Playing to the
If someone plays to the gallery, they say or do things that
will make them popular at the expense of more important
9- Holding out the olive branch
If you hold out or offer an olive branch, you make a gesture
to indicate that you want peace.
10- To make out
Discern or see, especially with difficulty
I can hardly make out the number on the door. [Mid-1700s]
Manage, get along
How did you make out with the accountant? This usage was
first recorded in 1820.
Understand I can't make out what she is trying to say.
Establish or prove
He made out that he was innocent. [Colloquial; mid-1600s]
Amply or suggest. This usage often occurs with an infinitive
Are you making me out to be a liar? [Colloquial; mid-1600s]
Write out, draw up; fill in a written form
He made out the invoices, or Jane started making out job
applications. This usage was first recorded in 1465
b) Use the following expressions and idioms in your own
sentences so as to bring out their meaning:
1- The acid test
An acid test is something that proves whether something is
good, effective, etc, or no
2- A bad hat
Someone who deliberately stirs up trouble
3- In a blue funk
In a state of panic or terror
Just because the bride's mother is late, you needn't get in a
blue funk.
This term originated in the mid-1700s as in a funk, the
adjective blue, meaning "affected with fear or anxiety",
being added a century later.
In a state of dejection, sad
Anne has been in a blue funk since her dog died.
This usage employs blue in the sense of "sad"—a meaning
that first emerged in the late 1300s.
4- Set one's cap Down at heel
Also, on someone's heels. Immediately behind, in close
Literal use
Jean's dog was always at her heels.
Figurative use
Although his company dominated the technology, he always
felt that his competitors were on his heels.
This idiom appeared in the 14th-century romance Sir
Gawain and the Green Knight.
The expression is sometimes intensified as hard on
someone's heels or hot on someone's heels
5- To die in harness
Expire while working, keep working to the end
He'll never retire—he'll die with his boots on. She knows
she'll never get promoted, but she wants to die in harness.
Both phrases probably allude to soldiers who died on active
duty. Until the early 1600s the noun boot denoted a piece
of armor for the legs, which may have given rise to this
Shakespeare used harness in the sense of armor when he
wrote: "At least we'll die with harness on our back"
(Macbeth 5:5).
6- Dead as doornail / dead as a dodo or herring
Totally or assuredly dead; also finished
The cop announced that the body in the dumpster was dead
as a doornail. The radicalism she professed in her
adolescence is now dead as a dodo. The Equal Rights
Amendment appears to be dead as a herring.
The first, oldest, and most common of these similes, all of
which can be applied literally to persons or, more often
today, to issues, involves doornail, dating from about 1350.
Its meaning is disputed but most likely it referred to the
costly metal nails hammered into the outer doors of the
wealthy (most people used the much cheaper wooden
pegs), which were clinched on the inside of the door and
therefore were "dead", that is, could not be used again.
Dead as a herring dates from the 16th century and no
doubt alludes to the bad smell this dead fish gives off,
making its death quite obvious.
Dead as a dodo, referring to the extinct bird, dates from the
early 1900s.
7- To raise coin
8- To strike one's colours
9. To carry the day
Win, prevail
At auctions the wealthiest bidders usually carry the day.
[Late 1600s]
b) Use any five of the following expressions and idioms in
your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings:
1- Taken down at peg
If someone is taken down a peg (or taken down a peg or
two), they lose status in the eyes of others because of
something they have done wrong or badly.
2- To monkey with
3- In hot water
in trouble
4- Petticoat Government
5- To pull oneself together
Regain one's composure or self-control
After that frightening episode, it took her a while to pull
herself together. [Second half of 1800s]
6- To rise from the ranks / come up through the ranks
Work one's way to the top
He's risen through the ranks, starting as a copy boy and
ending up as senior editor.
Originally this term was used for an officer who had worked
his way up from the rank of private, a rare feat. It was being
applied to non-military advances by the mid-1800s
7- To rub shoulders
If you rub shoulders with people, you meet and spend time
with them, especially when they are powerful or famous.
b) Bring out the meaning of any five of the following in
appropriate sentences:
1- Pocket the affront
2- Thin end of the wedge
The thin end of the wedge is something small and seemingly
unimportant that will lead to something much bigger and
more serious.
3- Flash in the pan
If something is a flash in the pan, it is very noticeable but
doesn't last long, like most singers, who are very successful
for a while, then forgotten
4- To keep at
Persevere or persist at doing something.
If you keep at your Math, you'll soon master it.
It is also put as keep at it
He kept at it all day and finally finished the report. [Early
Keep at someone
Nag, harass, or annoy someone
You have to keep at Carl if you want him to do the work. He
keeps at Millie all the time.
5- At one's beck and call
Ready to comply with any wish or command
6- Go against the grain
A person who does things in an unconventional manner,
especially if their methods are not generally approved of, is
said to go against the grain. Such an individual can be called
a maverick.
7- Bring grist to the mill
Something that you can use to your advantage is grist for
the mill.
('Grist to the mill' is also used.
8- Upset the apple cart
Spoil carefully laid plans
Now don't upset the apple cart by revealing where we're
This expression started out as upset the cart, used since
Roman times to mean "spoil everything". The precise idiom
dates from the late 1700s.
9- Hoist on one's own petard
If you are hoist with your own petard, you get into trouble or
caught in a trap that you had set for someone else.
10- Live on the fat of the land
The best or richest of anything
The tiny upper class lived off the fat of the land while many
of the poor were starving.
This expression alludes to fat in the sense of "the best or
richest part".
The Bible has it as eat the fat of the land (Genesis 45:18).

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6 (A) Use ONLY FIVE of the following in sentences to bring
out their meaning:
(1) Twiddle with
To play with something; to play with something, using one's
fingers; to fiddle with something.
I asked Jason to stop twiddling with the pencils.
Someone is twiddling with the stereo controls.
(2) Vamp up
Make up
vamp up an excuse for not attending the meeting
(3) Whittle away
cut away in small pieces, to cut or carve something away
The carver whittled the wood away until only a small figure
was left. He whittled away the wood.
(4) Winkle out
Force from a place or position
The committee winkled out the unqualified candidates.
(5) Give someone the bum's rush
To eject (or be ejected) forcibly
(6) Loom large
Appear imminent in a threatening, magnified form
The possibility of civil war loomed large on the horizon.
Martha wanted to take it easy for a week, but the bar exam
loomed large.
This term employs loom in the sense of "come into view", a
usage dating from the late 1500s.
(7) Besetting sin
A sin which is habitually attending a person, a prevailing or
predominant vice
We regret to say that apathy is the besetting sin of our rural
(8) To hang fire
The advertising campaign is hanging fire until they decide
how much to spend on it.
This expression originally referred to the 17th-century
flintlock musket, where the priming powder ignited but
often failed to explode the main charge, a result called
hanging fire. [c. 1800]
6 (A) Use only Five of the Following in sentences which
illustrate their meaning
1) To put the lid on / keep the lid on
I don't know how but we'll have to put the lid on that rumor
about her. Let's keep the lid on our suspicions.
The word lid here is used in the sense of "a cover for a
container." [Early 1900s]
2) Flavour if the mouth
Something that is prominent in the public eye for a short
time then fades out of interest.
Originally a term of approval for something that was up to
the minute and desirable. It has been used ironically from
the late 20th century to pass disdainful comment on things
which pass out of fashion quickly. For example, the "one hit
wonders" of the music business.
3) Zero hours
The time when something important is to begin is zero hour.
4) Gloom and doom
the feeling that a situation is bad and is not likely to improve
Come on, it's not all doom and gloom, if we make a real
effort we could still win.
5) To pig out
Eat ravenously, gorge oneself
The kids pigged out on the candy they had collected on
Halloween. [Slang; early 1970s]
6) Bag people
7) Compassion fatigue
A weariness of and diminishing public response to frequent
requests for charity.
8) No matters
Some thing which is not important
4. a. Use any FIVE of the following idioms in sentences to
make their meaning clear: (5)
i. Blow one's top
To be very angry, Explode in anger, lose one's temper, go
into a rage
ii. A cock and bull story
An unbelievable tale that is intended to deceive; a tall tale
Jack told us some cock and bull story about getting lost.
This expression may come from a folk tale involving these
two animals, or from the name of an English inn where
travellers told such tales.
W.S. Gilbert used it in The Yeomen of the Guard (1888),
where Jack Point and Wilfred the Jailer make up a story
about the hero's fictitious death: "Tell a tale of cock and
bull, Of convincing detail full." [c. 1600]
iii. Find one's feet
To be confident, become adjusted; become established
iv. Call it a night To stop what one has been doing, for the
remainder of the night.
v. The tip of the iceberg
vi. Below par
Less than average, less than normal
vii. From pillar to post
From one place or thing to another in rapid succession
viii. Hang up
Hold on , suspend; end a telephone conversation
ix. Turn some one in
x. By and by
Pretty soon, it won't be long now; gradually, eventually
6. (a) Use ONLY FIVE of the following in sentences with
illustrate their meaning: (5)
(i) Leave in the lurch
Abandon or desert someone in difficult straits
Jane was angry enough to quit without giving notice,
leaving her boss in the lurch. Where were you Karman, you
really left me in the lurch
This expression alludes to a 16th-century French dice
game, lourche, where to incur a lurch meant to be far
behind the other players. It later was used in cribbage and
other games, as well as being used in its present figurative
sense by about 1600.
(ii) Hard and fast
Defined, fixed, invariable
We have hard and fast rules for this procedure. There is no
hard and fast rule to start a computer
This term originally was applied to a vessel that has come
out of water, either by running aground or being put in dry
dock, and is therefore unable to move. By the mid-1800s it
was being used figuratively.
(iii) Weather the storm
Survive difficulties
If she can just weather the storm of that contract violation,
she'll be fine.
This expression alludes to a ship coming safely through bad
weather. [Mid-1600s]
(iv) Bear the brunt
Put up with the worst of some bad circumstance
It was the secretary who had to bear the brunt of the
doctor's anger. I had to bear the brunt of her screaming
and yelling
This idiom uses brunt in the sense of "the main force of an
enemy's attack," which was sustained by the front lines of
the defenders. [Second half of 1700s]
(v) Meet halfway
If you meet someone halfway, you accept some of their
ideas and make concessions.
If you want to settle the issues you have to meet me
(vi) Turncoat
one who goes to work / fight / play for the opposing side,
That turncoat! He went to work for the competition - Sears.
Ahmed is Turncoat and we should not relied upon him
(vii) Where the shoe pinches

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2. Use FIVE of the following in sentences to make their
meaning clear. (10)
(i) The teaming meanings
(ii) To kick the bucket
When someone kicks the bucket, they die
(iii) To push to the walls
To place in a desperate or extreme position
(iv) To read between the lines
If you read between the lines, you find the real message in
what you're reading or hearing, a meaning that is not
available from a literal interpretation of the words.
(v) To be at daggers drawn
If people are at daggers drawn, they are very angry and
close to violence.
(vi) To throw down the gauntlet
Declare or issue a challenge
The senator threw down the gauntlet on the abortion issue.
This expression alludes to the medieval practice of a knight
throwing down his gauntlet, or metal glove, as a challenge
to combat.
Its figurative use dates from the second half of the 1700s,
as does the less frequently heard take up the gauntlet, for
accepting a challenge.
(vii) To be a Greek / it's all Greek to me
It is beyond my comprehension
This new computer program is all Greek to me.
This expression was coined by Shakespeare, who used it
literally in Julius Caesar (1:2), where Casca says of a
speech by Seneca, deliberately given in Greek so that some
would not understand it:
"For mine own part, it was Greek to me." It soon was
transferred to anything unintelligible.
(viii) To stand on ceremony
Stand on ceremony, to behave in a formal or ceremonious
(ix) From the horse's mouth
If you hear something from the horse's mouth, you hear it
directly from the person concerned or responsible.
(x) To carry the cross
Make sentences with the given Idiomatic phrases so that
their meaning become clear: (10)
(1) take aback
Surprise, shock
He was taken aback by her caustic remark.
This idiom comes from nautical terminology of the
mid-1700s, when be taken aback referred to the stalling of
a ship caused by a wind shift that made the sails lay back
against the masts. Its figurative use was first recorded in
(2) take after
Follow the example of; also, resemble in appearance,
temperament, or character
Bill took after his uncle and began working as a volunteer
for the Red Cross. [Mid-1500s]
(3) take for
(4) take ill (sick)
Become ill
It's just my luck to get sick on vacation. When was she
taken ill? [Ninth century]
Become disgusted
We got sick as we learned how much money was wasted. I
get sick when I hear about his debts. [Early 1500s]
make one sick.
get sick to one's stomach
be sick, become nauseated, vomit
If you eat any more candy you'll get sick. Sick to her
stomach every morning? She must be pregnant. [Early
(5) take off
Take off your coat and stay for a while. I took my foot off
the brake. [c. 1300]
Deduct, decrease
He took 20 percent off the original price. I want you to trim
my hair, but please don't take off too much. [c. 1700]
Carry or take away
The passengers were taken off one by one. [Late 1800s]
take oneself off
Leave, go away
I'm taking off now. We take ourselves off for China next
as an imperative
Take yourself off right now! [First half of 1800s]
Move forward quickly
The dog took off after the car.
Become well known or popular, or achieve sudden growth
That actor's career has really taken off. Sales took off
around the holidays. [Mid-1900s]
Rise in flight
The air plane took off on time. [Mid-1800s]
The rail road took off the commuter special. [Mid-1700s]
Imitate humorously or satirically
He had a way of taking off the governor that made us howl
with laughter. [Mid-1700s]
Withhold service
I'm taking off from work today because of the funeral. [First
half of 1900s]
(6) take over
Assume control, management, or possession of
The pilot told his copilot to take over the controls. There's a
secret bid to take over our company. [Late 1800s]
(7) take for
To regard as
Do you take me for a fool?
To consider mistakenly
Don't take silence for approval.
(8) take in
To grant admittance to; receive as a guest or an employee
To reduce in size; make smaller or shorter
took in the waist on the pair of pants.
To include or constitute.
To understand Couldn't take in the meaning of the word.
To deceive or swindle
was taken in by a confidence artist.
To look at thoroughly; view
took in the sights.
To accept (work) to be done in one's house for pay
took in typing.
To convey (a prisoner) to a police station.
(9) take to task
Upbraid, scold; blame or censure
The teacher took Doris to task for turning in such a sloppy
This term, dating from the mid-1700s, at first meant either
assigning or challenging someone to a task. Its current
sense dates from the late 1800s.
(10) take to One's heels
Run away
When the burglar alarm went off they took to their heels.
This expression alludes to the fact that the heels are all one
sees of a fugitive running away fast. Although similar
expressions turned up from Shakespeare's time on, the
exact idiom dates only from the first half of the 1800s
(11) take with a grain or pinch of salt.
Skeptically, with reservations
I always take Sandy's stories about illnesses with a grain of
salt—she tends to exaggerate.
This expression is a translation of the Latin cum grano salis,
which Pliny used in describing Pompey's discovery of an
antidote for poison (to be taken with a grain of salt). It was
soon adopted by English writers.
6. Use the following in your own sentences to bring out
their meaning: (10)
(1) Kick the bucket
To die
(2) Bolt from the blue
If something happens unexpectedly and suddenly, it is a bolt
from the blue.
(3) Put your foot down
When someone puts their foot down, they make a firm stand
and establish their authority on an issue.
(4) Worth your salt
Someone who is worth their salt deserves respect.
(5) Down the drain
On the way to being lost or wasted; disappearing
Buying new furniture when they can't take it with them is
just pouring money down the drain. During the Depression
huge fortunes went down the drain.
This metaphoric term alludes to water going down a drain
and being carried off.
(6) All cars
(7) Swan song
A person's swansong is their final achievement or public
(8) Cheek by Jowl
If things or people are cheek by jowl, they are very close
(9) in a nutshell
Concisely, in a few words
Here's our proposal—in a nutshell, we want to sell the
business to you.
This hyperbolic expression alludes to the Roman writer
Pliny's description of Homer's Iliad being copied in so tiny a
hand that it could fit in a nutshell.
For a time it referred to anything compressed, but from the
1500s on it referred mainly to written or spoken words.
(10) Give me five
If someone says this, they want to hit your open hand
against theirs as a way of congratulation or greeting.
6. (a) Use any FIVE of the following in your own sentences
to bring out their meaning: (5)
1. To bring grist to the mill.
Something that you can use to your advantage is grist for
the mill.
2. Set one's cap at
Pursue someone romantically
We all thought Anne had set her cap for Joe, but we were
In the 1700s this term, which may have alluded to donning
one's best headgear, was applied to members of either sex,
but by the early 1800s it generally described a woman
chasing a man. It is probably obsolescent.
3. To draw the long bow
If someone draws a long bow, they lie or exaggerate.
4. To send a person to Coventry
To ostracize, or systematically ignore someone
5. Beer and skittles
People say that life is not all beer and skittles, meaning that
it is not about self-indulgence and pleasure.
6. The acid testAn acid test is something that proves
whether something is good, effective, etc, or not.
7. A skeleton in the cupboard.
If you have a skeleton in the cupboard, or in the closet, you
have a secret in your past which could damage you if it
became known.
8. To discover a mare's nest
6 (A) use any five of the following in your own sentences to
bring out their meaning
1). Keep ones nose to the grindstone
Stay hard at work
We expect John to get good grades again, since he really
keeps his nose to the grindstone.
This expression, first recorded in 1539, alludes to a tool
that must be sharpened by being held to a grindstone.
2). Throw someone for a loop / throw for a loop
knock down or over with a feather; knock sideways,
overcome with surprise or astonishment
The news of his death knocked me for a loop.
Being fired without any warning threw me for a loop. Jane
was knocked sideways when she found out she won.
The first two of these hyperbolic colloquial usages, dating
from the first half of the 1900s, allude to the comic-strip
image of a person pushed hard enough to roll over in the
shape of a loop.
The third hyperbolic term, often put as You could have
knocked me down with a feather, intimating that something
so light as a feather could knock one down, dates from the
early 1800s; the fourth was first recorded in 1925.
3). Letter perfect
The precise wording rather than the spirit or intent.
Since it was the first time he'd broken the rules, the school
decided to ignore the letter of the law and just give him a
warning. [Late 1500s]
4). Off the wall
Something that is off the wall is unconventional.
5). Out to lunch
If someone's out to lunch, they are crazy or out of touch.
6). Salt something away
Keep in reserve, store, save
He salted away most of his earnings in a bank account. This
idiom alludes to using salt as a food preservative.
7). Take someone to the cleaners
Take or cheat one out of all of one's money or possessions
Her divorce lawyer took him to the cleaners. That broker
has taken a number of clients to the cleaners. [Slang; early
Drub, beat up
He didn't just push you—he took you to the cleaners.
[Slang; early 1900s]
8). Wear the pants in the family
Exercise controlling authority in a household
Grandma or husband (incase of husband and wife) wears
the pants at our house.

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6. Make sentences for any five of the following to illustrate
their meaning: 10
i) Damocles' sword
Impending disaster
The likelihood of lay-offs has been a sword of Damocles
over the department for months.
This expression alludes to the legend of Damocles, a servile
courtier to King Dionysius I of Syracuse. The king, weary of
Damocles' obsequious flattery, invited him to a banquet and
seated him under a sword hung by a single hair, so as to
point out to him the precariousness of his position.
The idiom was first recorded in 1747. The same story gave
rise to the expression hang by a thread.
ii) Every inch
Completely, wholly
He was every inch a leader. I had to argue this case every
inch of the way.
iii) Spade a spade
Speak frankly and bluntly, be explicit
You can always trust Mary to call a spade a spade.
This term comes from a Greek saying, call a bowl a bowl,
that was mistranslated into Latin by Erasmus and came into
English in the 1500s.
iv) On the sky
v) Palm off
Pass off by deception, substitute with intent to deceive
The salesman tried to palm off a zircon as a diamond. The
producer tried to palm her off as a star from the
Metropolitan Opera.
This expression alludes to concealing something in the
palm of one's hand. It replaced the earlier palm on in the
early 1800s.
vi) Lip service
When people pay lip service to something, they express their
respect, but they don't act on their words, so the respect is
hollow and empty.
vii) A turn coat
One who goes to work / fight / play for the opposing side,
viii) A wild goose chase
A futile search or pursuit
I think she sent us on a wild goose chase looking for their
beach house.
This idiom originally referred to a form of 16th-century
horse racing requiring riders to follow a leader in a
particular formation (presumably resembling a flock of
geese in flight). Its figurative use dates from about 1600.
4. Frame sentences to illustrate the meaning of any five of
the following:
i) Between the devil and the deep sea
If you are caught between the devil and the deep blue sea,
you are in a dilemma; a difficult choice
ii) A wild goose chase
A worthless hunt or chase; a futile pursuit
iii) Over head and ears
iv) Time and tide
One must not procrastinate or delay
Let's get on with the voting; time and tide won't wait, you
This proverbial phrase, alluding to the fact that human
events or concerns cannot stop the passage of time or the
movement of the tides, first appeared about 1395 in
Chaucer's Prologue to the Clerk's Tale.
The alliterative beginning, time and tide, was repeated in
various contexts over the years but today survives only in
the proverb, which is often shortened (as above).
v) To live from hand to mouth
With only the bare essentials, existing precariously
After she lost her job she was living from hand to mouth.
This expression alludes to eating immediately whatever is at
hand. [c. 1500]
vi) To beat about the bush
If someone doesn't say clearly what they mean and try to
make it hard to understand, they are beating about (around)
the bush.
vii) To fish in troubled waters
Try to take advantage of a confused situation
He often buys up stock in companies declaring bankruptcy;
fishing in troubled waters generally pays off.
This term, first recorded in 1568, expresses the even older
notion that fish bite more readily when seas are rough.
viii) A bird's eye-view
If you have a bird's eye view of something, you can see it
perfectly clearly.
Use any five of the following in your sentences to bring out
their exact meanings: 10
a) Play truant
To stay away from school without permission
b) Play down
Make little of, minimize the importance of
A skillful salesman plays down the drawbacks of the
product and emphasizes its good features. [First half of
Play down to
Lower one's standards to meet the demands of someone
Some stand-up comics deliberately play down to the vulgar
taste of their audiences. [Late 1800s]
c) Turn turtle
Capsize, turn upside down
When they collided, the car turned turtle.
This expression alludes to the helplessness of a turtle
turned on its back, where its shell can no longer protect it.
[First half of 1800s]
d) Turn the corner
Pass a milestone or critical point, begin to recover.
Experts say the economy has turned the corner and is in
the midst of an upturn. The doctor believes he's turned the
corner and is on the mend.
This expression alludes to passing around the corner in a
race, particularly the last corner. [First half of 1800s]
e) A fair weather friend
A fair-weather friend is the type who is always there when
times are good but forgets about you when things get
difficult or problems crop up.
f) Under a cloud
If someone is suspected of having done something wrong,
they are under a cloud.
g) Burn one’s boats / burn one's boats
Commit oneself to an irreversible course.
Denouncing one's boss in a written resignation means one
has burned one's bridges.
Turning down one job before you have another amounts to
burning your boats.
Both versions of this idiom allude to ancient military tactics,
when troops would cross a body of water and then burn the
bridge or boats they had used both to prevent retreat and
to foil a pursuing enemy. [Late 1800s
h) Horse-trading
Negotiation marked by hard bargaining and shrewd
The restaurant owner is famous for his horse trading; he's
just exchanged a month of free dinners for a month of free
television commercials.
This expression alludes to the notorious shrewdness of
horse traders, who literally bought and sold horses. [c.
Frame sentences to illustrate the meaning of any five of the
following: 15
(i) Between Scylla and Charybidis
In a position where avoidance of one danger exposes one to
another danger.
(ii) Hobson’s choice
An apparently free choice that actually offers no alternative
My dad said if I wanted the car I could have it tonight or not
at all—that's Hobson's choice.
This expression alludes to Thomas Hobson of Cambridge,
England, who rented horses and allowed each customer to
take only the horse nearest the stable door. [Mid-1600s]
(iii) Sting in the tail
(iv) With open arms Enthusiastically, warmly
They received their new daughter-in-law with open arms.
This term alludes to an embrace. [Mid-1600s]
(v) Wash one's hand of (To)
Refuse to accept responsibility for; abandon or renounce
I've done all I can for him, and now I'm washing my hands
of him.
This expression alludes to Pontius Pilate's washing his
hands before having Jesus put to death, saying "I am
innocent of the blood of this just person" (Matthew 27:24).
(vi) Count one's chickens (To)
Make plans based on events that may or may not happen
You might not win the prize and you've already spent the
money? Don't count your chickens before they hatch! I
know you have big plans for your consulting business, but
don't count your chickens.
This expression comes from Aesop's fable about a milkmaid
carrying a full pail on her head. She daydreams about
buying chickens with the milk's proceeds and becoming so
rich from selling eggs that she will toss her head at suitors;
she then tosses her head and spills the milk.
Widely translated from the original Greek, the story was the
source of a proverb and was used figuratively by the 16th
century. Today it is still so well known that it often appears
shortened and usually in negative cautionary form (don't
count your chickens).
(vii) Burn midnight oil (To)
Stay up late working or studying
The semester is almost over and we're all burning the
midnight oil before exams.
This expression alludes to the oil in oil lamps. [Early 1600s]

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4. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any five of
the following: 10
1- To back out / back away / back out of something
Move or retreat backwards without turning, withdraw from a
situation, or break an agreement or engagement.
After the announcement appeared in the papers, Mary
found it doubly difficult to back out of her engagement to
Todd. [Early 1800s]
2- To keep out of
3- Bang into
Crash noisily into, collide with
A clumsy fellow, Bill was always banging into furniture.
[Early 1700s]
Strike heavily so as to drive in; also, persuade
I've been banging nails into the siding all day. I can't seem
to bang it into his head that time is precious.
The literal usage dates from the mid-1500s, the figurative
from the second half of the 1800s.
4- To smell a rat If you smell a rat, you know instinctively
that something is wrong or that someone is lying to you.
5- To burn one's fingers
Harm oneself
I'm staying away from risky stocks; I've burned my fingers
often enough.
Some believe this expression came from a legend about a
monkey who gets a cat to pull its chestnuts out of the fire
(see cat's paw); others hold it is from an English proverb:
"Burn not thy fingers to snuff another's candle" (James
Howell, English Proverbs, 1659)
6- Null and void
Cancelled, invalid
The lease is now null and void.
This phrase is actually redundant, since null means "void,"
that is, "ineffective." It was first recorded in 1669.
7- To catch up with
Suddenly snatch or lift up
The wind caught up the kite and sent it high above the
trees. [First half of 1300s]
catch up with
Come from behind, overtake
You run so fast it's hard to catch up with you.
The auditors finally caught up with the embezzler.
Become involved with, enthralled by
We all were caught up in the magical mood of that evening.
catch up on or with
Bring or get up to date
Let's get together soon and catch up on all the news.
Tonight I have to catch up with my correspondence. [First
half of 1900s]
8- To stand up for
Remain valid, sound, or durable
His claim will not stand up in court. Our old car stood up
well over time. [Mid-1900s]
Fail to keep a date or appointment with
Al stood her up twice in the past week, and that will be the
end of their relationship. [Colloquial; c. 1900]
9- To skim through
10- To narrow down
1. Use any five of the following idioms in your sentences: 15
a) As cool as a cucumber
If someone is as cool as a cucumber, they don't get worried
by anything.
b) Have your cake and eat too
If someone wants to have their cake and eat it too, they
want everything their way, especially when their wishes are
c) In a Pickle
If you are in a pickle, you are in some trouble or a mess.
d) Take a cake
Be the most outstanding in some respect, either the best or
the worst.
That advertising slogan really took the cake.
What a mess they made of the concert—that takes the
This expression alludes to a contest called a cakewalk, in
which a cake is the prize. Its figurative use, for something
either excellent or outrageously bad, dates from the 1880s.
e) Sell like hot cakes
If something is selling like hotcakes, it is very popular and
selling very well.
f) As flat as a Pancake
It is so flat that it is like a pancake- there is no head on that
beer it is as flat as a pancake.
g) Take something with a grain of salt / pinch of salt
If you should take something with a grain of salt, you
shouldn't necessarily believe it all.
h) Like two peas in a pod
Things that are like two peas in a pod are very similar or
4. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any five of
the following: 10
a) Account for
Be the determining factor in; cause The heat wave accounts
for all this food spoilage, or Icy roads account for the
increase in accidents.
Explain or justify
Jane was upset because her son couldn't account for the
three hours between his last class and his arrival at home.
Both of these related usages are derived from the literal
meaning of the phrase, that is, "make a reckoning of an
account." [Second half of 1700s]
b) Carry weight / carry authority or conviction
Exert influence, authority, or persuasion
No matter what the President says, his words always carry
weight. Shakespeare combined two of these expressions in
Henry VIII (3:2): "Words cannot carry authority so
weighty." [c. 1600]
c) To fall back upon
Rely on, have recourse to
I fall back on old friends in time of need, or When he lost his
job he had to fall back upon his savings. [Mid-1800s]
d) To be taken aback
Surprise, shock
He was taken aback by her caustic remark.
This idiom comes from nautical terminology of the
mid-1700s, when be taken aback referred to the stalling of
a ship caused by a wind shift that made the sails lay back
against the masts. Its figurative use was first recorded in
e) A wild goose chase
A wild goose chase is a waste of time- time spent trying to
do something unsuccessfully.
f) By leaps and bounds
Rapidly, or in fast progress The corn is growing by leaps and
bounds School enrollment is increasing by leaps and
This term is a redundancy, since leap and bound both mean
"spring" or "jump," but the two words have been paired
since Shakespeare's time and are still so used
g) As cool as a cucumber
If someone is as cool as a cucumber, they don't get worried
by anything.
h) To burn midnight oil
Stay up late working or studying
The semester is almost over and we're all burning the
midnight oil before exams.
This expression alludes to the oil in oil lamps. [Early 1600s]
3. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any four of
the following: 8
a) White elephant
A white elephant is an expensive burden; something that
costs far too much money to run, like the Millennium Dome
in the UK.
b) Blue Blood
Someone with blue blood is royalty.
c) Cleanse the Augean stable
d) Apple of discord
Anything causing trouble, discord, or jealousy
e) In good books
If someone is in your good books, you are pleased with or
think highly of them at the moment.
f) Between the devil and the deep sea
If you are caught between the devil and the deep blue sea,
you are in a dilemma; a difficult choice.
g) Stare in the face / look in the face
Be glaringly obvious, although initially overlooked
The solution to the problem had been staring me in the face
all along. I wouldn't know a Tibetan terrier if it looked me in
the face. [Late 1600s]
h) Make off with
Depart in haste, run away
The cat took one look at Richard and made off. [c. 1700]
Take something away; also, steal something
I can't write it down; Tom made off with my pen. The
burglars made off with the stereo and computer as well as
jewellery. [Early 1800s]

Everydy Science Notes of Eye (Anatomy)

Eye (anatomy), light-sensitive organ of vision in animals. The eyes of various species vary from simple structures that are capable only of differentiating between light and dark to complex organs, such as those of humans and other mammals, that can distinguish minute variations of shape, color, brightness, and distance. The actual process of seeing is performed by the brain rather than by the eye. The function of the eye is to translate the electromagnetic vibrations of light into patterns of nerve impulses that are transmitted to the brain.

The entire eye, often called the eyeball, is a spherical structure approximately 2.5 cm (about 1 in) in diameter with a pronounced bulge on its forward surface. The outer part of the eye is composed of three layers of tissue. The outside layer is the sclera, a protective coating. It covers about five-sixths of the surface of the eye. At the front of the eyeball, it is continuous with the bulging, transparent cornea. The middle layer of the coating of the eye is the choroid, a vascular layer lining the posterior three-fifths of the eyeball. The choroid is continuous with the ciliary body and with the iris, which lies at the front of the eye. The innermost layer is the light-sensitive retina.
The cornea is a tough, five-layered membrane through which light is admitted to the interior of the eye. Behind the cornea is a chamber filled with clear, watery fluid, the aqueous humor, which separates the cornea from the crystalline lens. The lens itself is a flattened sphere constructed of a large number of transparent fibers arranged in layers. It is connected by ligaments to a ringlike muscle, called the ciliary muscle, which surrounds it. The ciliary muscle and its surrounding tissues form the ciliary body. This muscle, by flattening the lens or making it more nearly spherical, changes its focal length.
The pigmented iris hangs behind the cornea in front of the lens, and has a circular opening in its center. The size of its opening, the pupil, is controlled by a muscle around its edge. This muscle contracts or relaxes, making the pupil larger or smaller, to control the amount of light admitted to the eye.
Behind the lens the main body of the eye is filled with a transparent, jellylike substance, the vitreous humor, enclosed in a thin sac, the hyaloid membrane. The pressure of the vitreous humor keeps the eyeball distended.
The retina is a complex layer, composed largely of nerve cells. The light-sensitive receptor cells lie on the outer surface of the retina in front of a pigmented tissue layer. These cells take the form of rods or cones packed closely together like matches in a box. Directly behind the pupil is a small yellow-pigmented spot, the macula lutea, in the center of which is the fovea centralis, the area of greatest visual acuity of the eye. At the center of the fovea, the sensory layer is composed entirely of cone-shaped cells. Around the fovea both rod-shaped and cone-shaped cells are present, with the cone-shaped cells becoming fewer toward the periphery of the sensitive area. At the outer edges are only rod-shaped cells.
Where the optic nerve enters the eyeball, below and slightly to the inner side of the fovea, a small round area of the retina exists that has no light-sensitive cells. This optic disk forms the blind spot of the eye.

In general the eyes of all animals resemble simple cameras in that the lens of the eye forms an inverted image of objects in front of it on the sensitive retina, which corresponds to the film in a camera.
Focusing the eye, as mentioned above, is accomplished by a flattening or thickening (rounding) of the lens. The process is known as accommodation. In the normal eye accommodation is not necessary for seeing distant objects. The lens, when flattened by the suspensory ligament, brings such objects to focus on the retina. For nearer objects the lens is increasingly rounded by ciliary muscle contraction, which relaxes the suspensory ligament. A young child can see clearly at a distance as close as 6.3 cm (2.5 in), but with increasing age the lens gradually hardens, so that the limits of close seeing are approximately 15 cm (about 6 in) at the age of 30 and 40 cm (16 in) at the age of 50. In the later years of life most people lose the ability to accommodate their eyes to distances within reading or close working range. This condition, known as presbyopia, can be corrected by the use of special convex lenses for the near range.
Structural differences in the size of the eye cause the defects of hyperopia, or farsightedness, and myopia, or nearsightedness. See Eyeglasses; Vision.
As mentioned above, the eye sees with greatest clarity only in the region of the fovea; due to the neural structure of the retina. The cone-shaped cells of the retina are individually connected to other nerve fibers, so that stimuli to each individual cell are reproduced and, as a result, fine details can be distinguished. The rodshaped cells, on the other hand, are connected in groups so that they respond to stimuli over a general area.
The rods, therefore, respond to small total light stimuli, but do not have the ability to separate small details of the visual image. The result of these differences in structure is that the visual field of the eye is composed of a small central area of great sharpness surrounded by an area of lesser sharpness. In the latter area, however, the sensitivity of the eye to light is great. As a result, dim objects can be seen at night on the peripheral part of the retina when they are invisible to the central part.
The mechanism of seeing at night involves the sensitization of the rod cells by means of a pigment, called visual purple or rhodopsin, that is formed within the cells. Vitamin A is necessary for the production of visual purple; a deficiency of this vitamin leads to night blindness. Visual purple is bleached by the action of light and must be reformed by the rod cells under conditions of darkness. Hence a person who steps from sunlight into a darkened room 4
cannot see until the pigment begins to form. When the pigment has formed and the eyes are sensitive to low levels of illumination, the eyes are said to be dark-adapted.
A brownish pigment present in the outer layer of the retina serves to protect the cone cells of the retina from overexposure to light. If bright light strikes the retina, granules of this brown pigment migrate to the spaces around the cone cells, sheathing and screening them from the light. This action, called light adaptation, has the opposite effect to that of dark adaptation.
Subjectively, a person is not conscious that the visual field consists of a central zone of sharpness surrounded by an area of increasing fuzziness.
The reason is that the eyes are constantly moving, bringing first one part of the visual field and then another to the foveal region as the attention is shifted from one object to another. These motions are accomplished by six muscles that move the eyeball upward, downward, to the left, to the right, and obliquely. The motions of the eye muscles are extremely precise; the estimation has been made that the eyes can be moved to focus on no less than 100,000 distinct points in the visual field. The muscles of the two eyes, working together, also serve the important function of converging the eyes on any point being observed, so that the images of the two eyes coincide. When convergence is nonexistent or faulty, double vision results. The movement of the eyes and fusion of the images also play a part in the visual estimation of size and distance.

Several structures, not parts of the eyeball, contribute to the protection of the eye. The most important of these are the eyelids, two folds of skin and tissue, upper and lower, that can be closed by means of muscles to form a protective covering over the eyeball against excessive light and mechanical injury.
The eyelashes, a fringe of short hairs growing on the edge of either eyelid, act as a screen to keep dust particles and insects out of the eyes when the eyelids are partly closed. Inside the eyelids is a thin protective membrane, the conjunctiva, which doubles over to cover the visible sclera. Each eye also has a tear gland, or lacrimal organ, situated at the outside corner of the eye. The salty secretion of these glands lubricates the forward part of the eyeball when the eyelids are closed and flushes away any small dust particles or other foreign matter on the surface of the eye. Normally the eyelids of human eyes close by reflex action about every six seconds, but if dust reaches the surface of the eye and is not washed away, the eyelids blink oftener and more tears are produced. On the edges of the eyelids are a number of small glands, the Meibomian glands, which produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the eyelids themselves and the eyelashes. The eyebrows, located above each eye, also have a protective function in soaking up or deflecting perspiration or rain and preventing the moisture from running into the eyes. The hollow socket in the skull in which the eye is set is called the orbit. The bony edges of the orbit, the frontal bone, and the cheekbone protect the eye from mechanical injury by blows or collisions.

The simplest animal eyes occur in the cnidarians and ctenophores, phyla comprising the jellyfish and somewhat similar primitive animals. These eyes, known as pigment eyes, consist of groups of pigment cells associated with sensory cells and often covered with a thickened layer of cuticle that forms a kind of lens. Similar eyes, usually having a somewhat more complex structure, occur in worms, insects, and mollusks.
Two kinds of image-forming eyes are found in the animal world, single and compound eyes. The single eyes are essentially similar to the human eye, though varying from group to group in details of structure. The lowest species to develop such eyes are some of the large jellyfish. Compound eyes, confined to the arthropods (see Arthropod), consist of a faceted lens, each facet of which forms a separate image on a retinal cell, creating a moasic field. In some arthropods the structure is more sophisticated, forming a combined image.
The eyes of other vertebrates are essentially similar to human eyes, although important modifications may exist. The eyes of such nocturnal animals as cats, owls, and bats are provided only with rod cells, and the cells are both more sensitive and more numerous than in humans. The eye of a dolphin has 7000 times as many rod cells as a human eye, enabling it to see in deep water. The eyes of most fish have a flat cornea and a globular lens and are hence particularly adapted for seeing close objects. Birds’ eyes are elongated from front to back, permitting larger images of distant objects to be formed on the retina.

Eye disorders may be classified according to the part of the eye in which the disorders occur. The most common disease of the eyelids is hordeolum, known commonly as a sty, which is an infection of the follicles of the eyelashes, usually caused by infection by staphylococci. Internal sties that occur inside the eyelid and not on its edge are similar infections of the lubricating Meibomian glands. Abscesses of the eyelids are sometimes the result of penetrating wounds. Several congenital defects of the eyelids occasionally occur, including coloboma, or cleft eyelid, and ptosis, a drooping of the upper lid. Among acquired defects are symblepharon, an adhesion of the inner surface of the eyelid to the eyeball, which is most frequently the result of burns. Entropion, the turning of the eyelid inward toward the cornea, and ectropion, the turning of the eyelid outward, can be caused by scars or by spasmodic muscular contractions resulting from chronic irritation.
The eyelids also are subject to several diseases of the skin such as eczema and acne, and to both benign and malignant tumors. Another eye disease is infection of the conjunctiva, the mucous membranes covering the inside of the eyelids and the outside of the eyeball. See Conjunctivitis; Trachoma.
Disorders of the cornea, which may result in a loss of transparency and impaired sight, are usually the result of injury but may also occur as a secondary result of disease; for example, edema, or swelling, of the cornea sometimes accompanies glaucoma. The choroid, or middle coat of the eyeball, contains most of the blood vessels of the eye; it is often the site of secondary infections from toxic conditions and bacterial infections such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Cancer may develop in the choroidal tissues or may be carried to the eye from malignancies elsewhere in the body. The light-sensitive retina, which lies just beneath the choroid, also is subject to the same type of infections. The cause of retrolental fibroplasia, however—a disease of premature infants that causes retinal detachment and partial blindness—is unknown. Retinal detachment may also follow cataract surgery. Laser beams are sometimes used to weld detached retinas back onto the eye. Another retinal condition, called macular degeneration, affects the central retina. Macular degeneration is a frequent cause of loss of vision in older persons. Juvenile forms of this condition also exist.
The optic nerve contains the retinal nerve fibers, which carry visual impulses to the brain. The retinal circulation is carried by the central artery and vein, which lie in the optic nerve. The sheath of the optic nerve communicates with the cerebral lymph spaces. Inflammation of that part of the optic nerve situated within the eye is known as optic neuritis, or papillitis; when inflammation occurs in the part of the optic nerve behind the eye, the disease is called retrobulbar neuritis. When the pressure in the skull is elevated, or increased in intracranial pressure, as in brain tumors, edema and swelling of the optic disk occur where the nerve enters the eyeball, a condition known as papilledema, or chocked disk.
For disorders of the crystalline lens, see Cataract. See also Color Blindness.

Eye banks are organizations that distribute corneal tissue taken from deceased persons for eye grafts. Blindness caused by cloudiness or scarring of the cornea can sometimes be cured by surgical removal of the affected portion of the corneal tissue. With present techniques, such tissue can be kept alive for only 48 hours, but current experiments in preserving human corneas by freezing give hope of extending its useful life for months. Eye banks also preserve and distribute vitreous humor, the liquid within the larger chamber of the eye, for use in treatment of detached retinas. The first eye bank was opened in New York City in 1945. The Eye-Bank Association of America, in Rochester, New York, acts as a clearinghouse for information.

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5. Explain FIVE of the following idioms by using them into
sentences: (10)
1- Bear out
Back up or confirm
The results bear out what he predicted. His story bears me
out exactly. [Late 1400s]
2- Back out / back out of something
Move or retreat backwards without turning; same as back
away; withdraw from a situation, or break an agreement or
After the announcement appeared in the papers, Mary
found it doubly difficult to back out of her engagement to
Todd. [Early 1800s]
3- Carry over
To keep something, usually merchandise, for a subsequent
We'll carry over this summer's bathing suits for next
winter's resort season.
Persist from one time or situation to another
His leadership in sports carried over to the classroom. [Late
4- Come off
Happen, occur
The trip came off on schedule. [Early 1800s]
Acquit oneself, reach the end
This usage always includes a modifier
Whenever challenged he comes off badly. This model is
doomed to come off second-best. [Mid-1600s] Succeed, as
in Our dinner party really came off. [Mid-1800s]
5- Fall back
Give ground, retreat
The troops fell back before the relentless enemy assault. He
stuck to his argument, refusing to fall back. [c. 1600]
The waves fell back from the shore. [c. 1800]
6- Figure out
Discover or determine
Let's figure out a way to help. [Early 1900s]
Solve or decipher
Can you figure out this puzzle? [Early 1800s]
To begin to comprehend someone or something; to come to
understand someone or something better
I just can't figure you out. I can't figure out quiet people
7- learn to live with
Get used to or accustom oneself to something that is painful,
annoying, or unpleasant
The doctor said nothing more could be done about
improving her sight; she'd just have to learn to live with it.
Pat decided she didn't like the new sofa but would have to
learn to live with it.
8- Set in
Insert, put in
I still have to set in the sleeves and then the sweater will be
done. [Late 1300s]
Begin to happen or become apparent
Darkness was setting in as I left. [c. 1700]
Move toward the shore, said of wind or water
The tide sets in very quickly here. [Early 1700s]
9- Cover up
Wrap up or enfold in order to protect
Be sure to cover up the outdoor furniture in case of rain.
It's cold, so be sure to cover up the baby. [Late 1800s]
Conceal something, especially a crime
The opposition accused the President of covering up his
assistant's suicide. [c. 1920]
10- Iron out
Work out, resolve, settle
They managed to iron out all the problems with the new
production process. John and Mary finally ironed out their
This expression uses ironing wrinkled fabric as a metaphor
for smoothing differences. [Mid-1800s]
6. Explain FIVE of the following Idioms by using them into
sentences. (10)
a) To beat the air / beat the wind
Continue to make futile attempts, fight to no purpose
The candidates for office were so much alike that we
thought our vote amounted to beating the air.
These phrases call up a vivid image of someone flailing
away at nothing. [Late 1300s]
b) To beggar description
Defy or outdo any possible description
The stage set was so elaborate, it beggared description.
This term, alluding to the idea that words are insufficient to
do something justice, was already used by Shakespeare in
Antony and Cleopatra (2:2):
"For her own person It beggared all description."
c) To bring to mind
Cause to be remembered
The film brought to mind the first time I ever climbed a
This idiom, first recorded in 1433, appears in Robert
Burns's familiar "Auld Lang Syne" (1788), in which the poet
asks if old times should never be brought to mind.
d) To call in question / call into question
Dispute, challenge; also, cast doubt on
How can you call her honesty into question?
This usage was first recorded in John Lyly's Euphues
"That ... I should call in question the demeanour of all."
e) To cap it all / cap it all off
Finish or complete something
To cap it all off they served three kinds of dessert.
Surpass or outdo something
This last story of Henry's caps them all.
Both usages employ cap in the sense of “topping”
something. [First half of 1800s]
f) To clip one's wings
To end a person's privileges; to take away someone's power
or freedom to do something
My father said that if I dind't start behaving, he was going
to clip my wings.
In acient Rome thousands of years ago, people clipped the
wings of pet birds so that they couldn't fly away. For
centuries people have used the idiom "Clip one's wings" to
mean brings a person under control.
g) To cross the Rubicon
Irrevocably commit to a course of action, make a fateful and
final decision.
Once he submitted his resignation, he had crossed the
This phrase alludes to Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon
River (between Italy and Gaul) in 49 B.C., thereby starting a
war against Pompey and the Roman Senate. Recounted in
Plutarch's Lives: Julius Caesar (c. A.D. 110), the crossing
gave rise to the figurative English usage by the early 1600s.
h) To feel the pulse / feel the pulse of
Try to determine the intentions or sentiments of a person or
These exit polls allegedly take the pulse of the voters, but I
don't believe they're very meaningful. [First half of 1600s]
i) To fly in the face of / fly in the teeth of
Act in direct opposition to or defiance of
This decision flies in the face of all precedent. They went
out without permission, flying in the teeth of house rules.
This metaphoric expression alludes to a physical attack.
j) To rise like a phoenix from its ashes
In life we should all learn from the mistakes that we have
made and try not to repeat them. We should not let sorrow
overcome us and stand in our way. Learn to overcome
hardships in life is all what life is worth living about. After all
that's the definition of life. Hence the saying "rise like a
phoenix from the ashes"
Phoenix is supposed to be a mythological bird of fire that is
believed to die in flames and turn to ash. But then it comes
back to life from the same ash.
7. Explain FIVE of the following idioms by using them into
sentences: (10)
1- The last ditch
A desperate final attempt
We're making a last-ditch effort to finish on time.
This expression alludes to the military sense of last ditch,
"the last line of defence." Its figurative use dates from the
early 1800s.
2- A square meal A substantial or complete meal
These airlines never feed you; I haven't had a square meal
on one yet. [Mid-1800s]
3- Go public
Become a publicly held company, that is, issue ownership
shares in the form of stock.
As soon as the company grows a little bigger and begins to
show a profit, we intend to go public. [Mid-1900s]
4- Run riot (wild)
Behave in a frenzied, out-of-control, or unrestrained manner
I was afraid that if I left the toddler alone she would run
amok and have a hard time calming down. The weeds are
running riot in the lawn The children were running wild in
the playground.
Amok comes from a Malay word for "frenzied" and was
adopted into English, and at first spelled amuck, in the
second half of the 1600s.
Run riot dates from the early 1500s and derives from an
earlier sense, that is, a hound's following an animal scent.
Run wild alludes to an animal reverting to its natural,
uncultivated state; its figurative use dates from the late
5- The backroom boy
Men who play poker and smoke in a room at the back of the
When the police raided Gino's they arrested four of the
backroom boys.
6- Foot the bill The person who foots the bill pays the bill for
everybody, settle the accounts
The bride's father was resigned to footing the bill for the
This expression uses foot in the sense of "add up and put
the total at the foot, or bottom, of an account." [Colloquial;
early 1800s]
7- Set the pace
Establish a standard for others to follow
Jim has set the pace for the department, exceeding the
monthly quota every time.
This expression comes from racing, where it is said of a
horse that passes the others and leads the field. It was
transferred to other activities in the early 1900s.
8- At times
Occasionally, sometimes
Away from home for the first time, Mary was homesick at
times. [Early 1500s]
9- Steal the show / steal the spotlight
Be the center of attention
The speeches were interesting but Eliza's singing stole the
This idiom alludes to unexpectedly outshining the rest of
the cast in a theatrical production. [First half of 1900s]
10- Grey matter
Grey/gray matter is the human brain
Make sentences of any FIVE of the following idioms. (15)
(a) A jaundiced eye
The phrase "Jaundiced eye" means to looks at something
with a prejudiced view, usually in a rather negative or critical
(b) A left-handed compliment / backhanded compliment
An insult in the guise of an expression of praise
She said she liked my hair, but it turned out to be a
left-handed compliment when she asked how long I'd been
dyeing it.
This expression uses left-handed in the sense of
"questionable or doubtful," a usage dating from about
(c) The ruling passion
An interest or concern that occupies a large part of
someone's time and effort
(d) Tower of strength
Someone who can be relied on to provide support and
(e) Steal a march on someone
To get ahead of, especially by quiet enterprise.
(f) In one's bones
Have an intuition or hunch about something
I'm sure he'll succeed—I can feel it in my bones.
This expression alludes to the age-old notion that persons
with a healed broken bone or with arthritis experience bone
pain before rain, due to a drop in barometric pressure, and
therefore can predict a weather change.
(g) Hang in the balance
Be in a precarious condition or in a state of suspense
The doctor said her life was hanging in the balance.
This expression alludes to the suspended balance scale
where an object is placed in one pan and weights are added
one by one to the other pan until the two are balanced.
(h) Fly in the ointment
A drawback or detrimental factor
The new library is wonderful but there's a fly in the
ointment. Their catalog isn't complete yet.
This term probably alludes to a biblical proverb
(Ecclesiastes 10:1):
"Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send
forth a stinking savour."
(i) Close-fisted
Tightfisted; stingy or unwilling to part with money
Use any FIVE of the following idioms in sentences to make
their meaning clear:
(i) Blow one's top / blow one's stack
Fly into a rage; lose one's composure
If she calls about this one more time I'm going to blow my
top. Warren is generally very easy-going, but today he blew
his stack. The top here has been likened to the top of an
erupting volcano; the stack alludes to a smokestack.
Go crazy; become insane
When she regains consciousness, she just may blow her
(ii) A cock-and-bull story
A fanciful and unbelievable tale
(iii) Find one's feet
To grow in confidence in a new situation as one gains
If you ask for help when you need it, you will soon find your
(iv) Call it a night
To go to bed to sleep
(v) The tip of the iceberg
The tip of the iceberg is the part of a problem that can be
seen, with far more serious problems lying underneath
(vi) Below par / under par
Not up to the average, normal, or desired standard
I am feeling below par today, but I'm sure I'll recover by
This term employs par in the sense of "an average amount
or quality," a usage dating from the late 1700s.
(vii) From pillar to post
If something is going from pillar to post, it is moving around
in a meaningless way, from one disaster to another.
(viii) Hang up/ hang up on
Suspend on a hook or hanger, as in Let me hang up your
coat for you. [c. 1300]
Replace a telephone receiver in its cradle; end a phone
She hung up the phone He hung up on her. [Early 1900s]
Delay or hinder; also, become halted or snagged
Budget problems hung up the project for months. Traffic
was hung up for miles. [Second half of 1800s]
Have or cause to have emotional difficulties
Being robbed at gunpoint can hang one up for years to
come. [Slang; early 1900s]
Obsessed with
For years the FBI was hung up on Communist spies. [First
half of 1900s]
hang up one's sword or gloves or fiddle
Quit, retire
He's hanging up his sword next year and moving to Florida.
The noun in these expressions refers to the profession one
is leaving—sword for the military, gloves for boxing, and
fiddle for music—but they all are used quite loosely as well,
as in the example.
hang up one's hat
Settle somewhere, reside
"Eight hundred a year, and as nice a house as any
gentleman could wish to hang up his hat in" (Anthony
Trollope, The Warden, 1855).
(ix) Turn some one on
To create feeling of excitement, interest, lust, pleasure etc
(ix) Turn some one off
To create feelings of dislike, repulsion, disgust etc
(x) By and by
After a while, soon
She'll be along by and by.
The expression probably relies on the meaning of by as a
succession of quantities (as in "two by two").
This adverbial phrase came to be used as a noun, denoting
either procrastination or the future. William Camden so
used it for the former (Remains, 1605): "Two anons and a
by and by is an hour and a half." And W.S. Gilbert used it in
the latter sense when Lady Jane sings plaintively that little
will be left of her "in the coming by and by," that is, as she
grows old (Patience, 1881). [Early 1500s]

10 Questions with Mirza M. Imran | 6th Position CSS 2013

JWT is extremely helpful and highly inspiring for CSS students, especially with its hawk-eye analyses of, and critical approach to, various national and international issues.

Jahangir’s World Times (JWT): First of all, for the interest of JWT readers and CSS, PMS aspirants, please tell us about your academic background.

Mirza Mohammad Imran (MMI): I belong to Jalalpur Jattan; a historic town in the suburbs of Gujrat. After my early education from Jalalpur Jattan, I did DAE from Govt. Swedish Pakistani Institute of Technology Gujrat. Afterwards, I did graduation and then earned my Master’s degree in English Literature from University of the Punjab.

JWT: Why PSP was your first choice?
MMI: There are two reasons for making PSP my top priority:

First, if you look around, you will find that injustice and discontentment among people are all too conspicuous. The poverty-stricken and downtrodden masses are helpless and are also hopeless. I have a strong conviction that in this bleak scenario only a true police officer can help mitigate the people’s sufferings. I am highly thankful to Almighty Allah for providing me with an opportunity to be a part of the PSP.

Second, I have already been serving in police department. Now, as a part of the higher hierarchy of this department, I would have more opportunities to serve my people as well as my country.

JWT: Your thoughts would surely inspire students to go for the CSS, so what would you advise them in this regard? And, how, in your opinion, Jahangir's World Times (JWT) can be a rich source of guidance for them?

MMI: They say no journey is long when dreams are big. So, we should dream big but should also make relentless efforts to achieve those dreams. Life, from start to end, is itself a competition the success in which can change your life. Likewise, success in any competitive exam, particularly CSS, changes the nature of competitions one would face in future.

Understanding one's intellectual appetite, weaknesses and complex nature of the fate-game, and then working on achieving dreams with sheer perseverance and undeterred commitment, mark a journey that would surely end in success.

I believe JWT is extremely helpful and highly inspiring for CSS students, especially with its hawk-eye analyses of, and critical approach to, various national and international issues.

JWT: You scored well in two crucial papers: Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs. Please share how did you do it as these two papers, traditionally, are less scoring?
MMI: I don't think any paper of CSS exam is less scoring. Only sincere guidance and working with objectivity are required to get through those. Now, as far as my performance in these papers is concerned, I am highly indebted to my mentor and guru, Sir Abdul Rasheed, who inculcated in me the quest for scientific understanding of the universe. It is only due to this that atlas-reading is one of my hobbies — I also mentioned it in my psychological assessment.

Along with this, the reading of authentic writers like Ian Talbot, Hamza Alvi, K.K. Aziz, K.B. Saeed and Dr Eqbal Ahmad helped me in developing critical understanding of these subjects.

JWT: To whom would you give the credit of your success?
MMI: First of all, I thank Almighty Allah for blessing me with success. Prayers of my parents, cooperation of siblings and guidance of my kind teachers contributed a lot in my success. I dedicate this achievement to my father, and to my spiritual fathers Mr Abdur Rasheed, and Mr Altaf Hussain Ansari; my guru and a man of all seasons.

JWT: How one can make a difference in written part of CSS exam?
MMI: One must be very clear about one's positive points as well as shortcomings. In CSS, performance in written part is crucial and more important than anything else. One can make a difference by writing relevant, to-the-point and simple answers.

JWT: What strategy did you adopt for English Essay and Précis & Composition papers especially keeping the fact in view that most candidates flunk these very papers?
MMI: I think, the Essay paper requires creative writing. So, well-developed thoughts expressed in lucid language do the trick. I used to write essay, at least, once a week with a comprehensive brainstorming on different topics.

JWT: What is the best way to choose optional papers and how did you get excellent scores in Persian and Punjabi?
MMI: Know thyself; sort out your interest and taste, then go for optional papers. I scored well in Punjabi and Persian because literature is my forte. Students try to go for the subjects that are considered scoring but I would suggest that one must follow one’s intellectual faculties. Students must understand it. Just try to opt for those subjects which help you in preparing for other subjects too.

JWT: How one can adopt a balanced approach while preparing for compulsory and optional subjects?
MMI: Each subject has its own weight in CSS exam. Therefore, one has to give proper time to each subject.

JWT: How was your interview with the panel?
MMI: It was really a wonderful experience. About ninety-five per cent of it was as per my expectations, and calculations. It all happened in a candid environment. During the whole interview, my focus was on leaving grey areas for the panel members.

Before appearing in any interview, one must know oneself, family, district of domicile, education, job (if any) and the post applied for. Never lie in your psychological assessment and be genuine in interview.

Source: Jahangir's World Times

10 Questions with ROSHAN LAL WADWANI (FSP)

Candidly, Jahangir's World Times (JWT) worked as a mentor for me as it has been a constant source of knowledge. It provided me with all the required information about the CSS and its preparation.

Jahangir's World Times (JWT): First of all, tell us about your education?
Roshan Wadwani (RW): Basically, I hail from Sindh province. In fact, I had braved numerous hardships as the region I belong to is extremely backward in terms of education facilities and guidance as it lacks good institutions. Actually, being a victim of polio, I could not attend school. My parents had to arrange a home-teacher to start my studies. Later, my family had to shift to India where I got educated for nearly two years. This was a real turning point in my life because thenceforth my devotion to studies further strengthened. When we moved back to Pakistan, I continued my studies and did my matriculation in “A” grade from a Government High School Jarwar, district Ghotki.

After, I earned my master's degree in English from Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, I started teaching at a private school. Teaching really helped me in discovering my potentials, developing confidence and enhancing my capabilities.

JWT: When you were growing up, what was your dream career? Was being a CSP always your aim?
RW: Joining the Civil Services has never been my aim. It might be surprising for you that till 2005, I didn't have much knowledge about CSS. I always wanted to be a doctor but, unfortunately, my disability frustrated my dreams. Nevertheless, I did not lose hope and my resolve to prove my potential always encouraged to go on with my studies.

JWT: What made you go for the CSS?
RW: What made me aspire to be a CSP was a passion for social work. Philanthropy has been at the core of my heart. Furthermore, Civil Service guarantees a prestigious career as there is a wider circle of influence as you become a part of policy making circles.

JWT: What, in your opinion, is the reason that we do not see a substantial representation of minorities, especially Hindus, in Civil Service of Pakistan. And, what inspired you to join it?

RW: I think, it's due to lack of sufficient awareness of Civil Service. Although, I had qualified yet fewer people in my town really know what, after all, Civil Service is. However, awareness is increasing and more and more candidates from Hindu Community are taking CSS exams.

JWT: Polio has scarred the image of Pakistan in the world. Although you yourself are a polio victim yet your successes are definitely phenomenal. How you can portray the positive image of our country?

RW: Polio is, of course, a serious challenge for Pakistan. Actually, there is a little awareness among common people about the rights of the disabled and facilities to be provided to them. I myself had to face a lot of problems to reach this stage. I believe Pakistan is a country abounding in opportunities because I, myself, have become a part of this prestigious fraternity without any political backing or influence.
Foreign Service of Pakistan — my first choice in the occupational groups — is the right platform to present a positive image of Pakistan as through this, I can represent Pakistan all over the world.

JWT: Impressed by your endeavours, if some readers decide to go for CSS, then what advice would you give them? And, how do you see Jahangir's World Times (JWT) as far as guidance for CSS-exam is concerned?

RW: I would exhort readers and new aspirants to believe in hard work. Always keep in mind that there is no substitute to hard work. When hopes are high and eyes are towards target then nothing is impossible, that is what I have learnt from my life and, of course, personal experiences.
Candidly, Jahangir's World Times (JWT) worked as a mentor for me as it has been a constant source of knowledge when I couldn't join any academy during the preparation for written part as well as for interviews. It was JWT that provided me with all the required information about the CSS and its preparation. All its articles are very informative and thought-provoking. I would strongly recommend the new aspirants to consult JWT while preparing for the CSS.

JWT: How one can make a difference in written part?
RW: One can make a real difference through vast reading and by developing one's analytical skills. Elements like coherence, clarity of ideas and logical arguments must be kept in mind while answering the question. Strong introductory and concluding paragraphs also prove really helpful.

JWT: How did you manage to get through Essay and Précis & Composition papers? Although these two are the most crucial papers, yet you fetched good marks especially in Composition paper?

RW: I drew up a simple strategy; write, write and write. I used to write and practice complete essays and it helped me a lot in developing writing skills and rectifying any mistakes. This ultimately paid off and I got excellent marks in Composition paper. Students usually shun practicing essay or précis which is not the right approach. The more you write, the more you know about your weaknesses and the more you sharpen your writing and analytical skills. As regards English composition paper, one should work on the basic syntax, enrichment of vocabulary, and above all, one should always work more and more on précis, comprehension and expansion of ideas.

JWT: How one can adopt a balanced approach to equally focus compulsory and optional subjects?
RW: Generally, the aspirants choose optional subjects while keeping in mind the scoring trend. This factor should be considered but the thing that really matters is one's interest in a particular subject. So don't follow the popular trend and just follow your heart. During preparation equal importance and time should be allotted for both compulsory and optional subjects. Consult one or two good books on each subject and prepare your own notes.

JWT: Would you like to give any message to our readers especially those from minority communities?
RW: I urge the youth especially belonging to minorities to take CSS exam and to succeed, you must first believe YOU CAN!

Source: Jahangir's World Times




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