Islamiat Notes Obedience of Prophets & Executive Authority Lecture No. 4

Lecture No. 4

TOPIC: Obedience of Prophets & executive authority

Definition of Obedience

      طاع يطاع    Each of these verb mean be rendered , he was or became obedient or he obeyed.

            As the life of a Muslim must e directed upon a full and unreserved co-operation between his spiritual and his bodily Self, so the leadership of out Prophet embraces life as a compound entity, as sum total of moral and practical, individual and social manifestations. This is the deepest meaning of Sunnah.

The Qur’an sys.

“Whatever the Prophet enjoins you, accept; and whatever he forbids you, avoid"

"The Jews have been split up into seventy one sects, the Christians into seventy –two sects, and the Muslims will be split up into seventy –three sects" (jami, at –Tirmidhi.) In this connection it may be mentioned that in Arabian usage the number 70 very often stands for "many," and does not necessarily denote that actual, arithmetical figure. So the Prophet obviously intended to say that the sects and divisions among the Muslims would be very many, even more than those among the Jews and Christians.

And he added.

“Nay, by thy Sustainer! They do not attain to faith until they make thee (O Muhammad) a judge of what is in dispute between them and find in themselves no dislike of what thou decides, and submit with (full) submission”


"Say [O Muhammad]:  If you love God, follow me: God will love you and forgive you’re your sins; and God is Forgiving, a Dispenser of Grace. Say: Obey God and the Apostle, But if they turn away, behold, God loved not the Unbelievers, (Surah 3: -31,32).

            The Sunnah of the Prophet is, therefore, next to the Qur’an, the second source of Islamic law of social and personal behavior; In fact, we must regard the Sunnah as the only valid explanation of the Quranic teachings. Many verses of the Holy Qur’an have an allegorical meaning and could be understood in deferent ways unless there was some definite system of interpretation. And there are, furthermore, many items of practical importance not explicitly dealt with in the Qur’an.
            The spirit prevailing in the Holy Book is, to be sure, uniform throughout; but to deduce from it the practical attitude which we have to adopt is not in every faze an easy matter, So long as we believe that his Book is the Word of God, perfect in form and purpose, the only logical conclusion is that it never was intended to be used independently of the personal guidance of the Prophet which is embodied in the system of Sunnah. For the purposes of this chapter the following reflection should be sufficient. Our reasoning tells us that there could not possibly be a better interpreter of the Quranic teachings than he through whom they were revealed to humanity.

            The slogan we so often hear in out days, “Let us go back to the Qur’an, but let us not be slavish followers of the Sunnah," merely betrays an ignorance of Islam. Those who speak so resemble a man who wishes to enter a palace but does not wish to employ the genuine key, which alone is fit open, the door.

            And so we come to the very important question as to the authenticity of the sources, which reveal the life and the sayings of the Prophet to us. These sources are the ahadith, the Traditions of the sayings and actions of the Prophet reported and transmitted by his Companions and critically collected in the first few centuries of Islam. Many modern Muslims profess that they cannot rely upon the body of the ahadith on which it rests. It has become a matter of fashion in our days to deny, in principle, the authenticity of hedith and, therefore, of the whole structure of the Sunnah.

Executive     Authority.

            The role of the executive authority in the Islamic system is essentially to ensure the implementation of the Shariah for those who follow it among the resident of the Islamic State, owing either to their faith in Islam, or to their desire for the protection it provides, Thus, the Islamic State does not require of its subjects any new sort of legal encumbrance, but rather that they implement what their faith requires of them. It is for this reason that the Islamic system differs from all man –made systems of government in which citizens subjected to the commands of people not deferent from themselves.
            Such governments require the obedience of its citizens even by force major.

            The Muslim, owing to his belief in Allah, is a follower of the Shariah; he is certain that it is the truth outside of which there is no truth, and that it is he embodiment of justice outside of which there is no justice. One of he requirements of his faith is that the Muslim submit to the ruling of Allah in every matter on which he and another may disagree; and that he do so without finding any rancor in his heart towards the Shariah ruling, even if it seems to be contrary to his own wishes .The Muslim must accept the judgment and obediently carry it out because, in truth, its implementation will count as a good deed for the Muslim, and will be a form of worship for which he may be rewarded .On the other hand, his refusal to carry out the sentence of the Shariah will be a misdeed for which he may be punished .
Allah said.

 “Nay, by thy Sustainer! They do not attain to faith until they make thee (O Muhammad) a judge of what is in dispute between them and find in themselves no dislike of what thou decides, and submit with (full) submission”

            If the Muslim should fail to do his duty, then the executive authority in the Islamic State shall compel him to carry out his obligation and fulfill his covenant with Allah.

            Consequently, those wig gave written on the subject of Islamic constitutional Fiqah have confirmed that the role of the representatives of the Islamic state, the Khalifa and his assistants, the governors, the judges and the other civil servants, is the defense of the fait and the administration of the worldly affairs of Muslims.

            In fact, this summarization is a comprehensive on and sheds light on the meaning of Islamic legal control and its exercise.

            The undertaking by the Islamic state of this executive function is, in fact, the basis of the legitimacy of the authority granted to the Islamic Ummah

            Thus, if the state is lax in lax its duty, then it forfeits the basis of its authority, and the reason for its existence.

            If the Islamic state is responsible for the preservation of its legitimacy, then its executive authorities as represented by the Iman, the governors and the employees of the state may not depart from his legitimacy in the administration and managing the affairs of state .So if any one of them does anything addressed by such regulation or decisions will not be obligated to obey or comply. Moreover, if what he has done is of a material nature and causes loss or injury to an individual or to a group, then the Chief Executive must ensure that compensation is provided for such a loss either through the courts or the Ombudsman.
Khalifa Abu Bakr proclaimed his principle in his first address after becoming Khalifa, by saying.

            Obey me as long I obey Allah and His Prophet If ever I should disobey them, them, then you need no longer to obey me.

            All of the rightly guided Khalifa and the just Imams after him followed the same principle of the Shariah which has come to be known through an aggregate of Shariah texts which taken collectively, have peremptory authority.  This leads us then, to one of the most important principles of government in Islam.

            It is related on the authority of the fourth Rightly guided Khalifa, Ali  (رضي الله عنه) , that the Prophet of Allah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) , sent out a military expedition with a man from the Ansar as its commander .After they had set out ,the commander attempted to test the earnestness of his men by saying to them ; Did the Prophet of Allah (صلي الله عليه وسلم), not order you to obey me ? In reply, they said 'But of course, Then he said:  Collect some dry wood, I have decided that your will that you will step into this fire, Then one of the younger soldiers said to the others You ran from the first of Hell to the Prophet of Allah (صلي الله عليه وسلم). Do not now rush into anything until you have met the Prophet of Allah. Then, if he orders you to step into it, The narrator said; when they returned to Prophet (صلي الله عليه وسلم), and told Him what had happened, He said to them, If you had stepped into it, you would never have stepped out of it Obedience is owed only in matters of piety, (Imams Bukhari and Muslim related it).

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